• Research and methodology: Tattoo marks and behaviour disorder

      McKerracher, David W.; Watson, R. A. (1969)
    • Gerontophilia - A case report

      Kaul, Adarsh; Duffy, Stephen (1991)
      Gerontophilia describes a specific sexual inclination towards the elderly and may at times explain the sadistic attacks made upon them. The case of a homosexual gerontophile who was engaging in assaulting old men is reported here. An attempt has been made at understanding his offending behaviour and possible treatment options proposed.
    • Towards a new methodology for making sense of case material: An illustrative case involving attempted multiple murder

      Gresswell, David M.; Hollin, Clive R. (1992)
      Functional analysis provides a method of understanding behavior in terms of its consequences for the individual concerned. The suggestion is made here that the application of this method to past behaviour will be useful to both practitioners and researchers. It offers benefits in terms of organising case material, understanding the aetiology of the behavior, planning interventions and predicting dangerousness. It should be noted, however, that this is not an exercise in developing causal models of specific offences. In this paper multiple sequential functional analysis methodology is described and the problems of applying it retrospectively to criminal behaviours discussed. The methodology is illustrated with the case of a man who formulated a plan to kill 20 people and was convicted of two counts of attempted murder.
    • Psychopathic disordered, mentally ill, and mentally handicapped sex offenders: A comparative study

      Briggs, David (1992)
      Although there currently exists a large amount of research on the characteristics and treatment of psychopathic disordered (PD) sex offenders, little if any empirical studies have addressed the mentally ill (MI) and mentally handicapped (MH) offender populations. A total of 106 PD, MI, and MH sex offender records from Rampton (Special) Hospital were reviewed for the study. Offender categories were compared by age of first documented sex offence, IQ at the time of admission, sex offence type, frequency of each offence type, history of violence during sex offences, age and gender of sex offence victims and number of victims for age and gender. Results revealed that 88 per cent of PD, 98 per cent of MI, and only 56 per cent of MH offenders' victims were female. Further analysis revealed that PD and MI offenders' victims were primarily female, with the largest proportion being pubescent and adult females. MH offender victims were primarily males and females under the age of 16. IQ correlated positively with history of violence during sexual assault and mean IQs were higher for ‘violent’ than ‘non-violent’ offenders in each offender category. A discussion of these and other significant findings, as well as implications for clinical treatment, is presented. © 1992, The British Academy of Forensic Sciences. All rights reserved.
    • Sex offenders — cure or management?

      Kaul, Adarsh (1993)
      A variety of biological, psychoanalytical and behavioural treatment strategies have been employed to treat sex offenders. Whilst these may produce short-term benefits, their efficacy in reducing long-term recidivism is uncertain. It is possible that treatment, as generally understood, is too ambitious an aim for this group of people and better results could be expected by employing a management strategy that includes treatment as well as life-long vigilant supervision. This can only be achieved if psychiatric services, which are used in continuing care, get involved in the management of sex offenders. © 1993, The British Academy of Forensic Sciences. All rights reserved.
    • Multiple murder : A review

      Gresswell, David M. (1994)
      A review of the literature on multiple murder reveals little systematic research on this phenomenon despite widespread media interest and figures indicating that over 3 per cent of homicide victims in England and Wales die in incidents of multiple homicide. Difficulties in both defining multiple murder and estimating its prevalance are noted, although these can be seen as essential steps towards the formulation of a comprehensive psychological model of this type of crime. A review of the literature indicates that fantasy rehearsal of murderous and sadistic acts is commonly reported in this group, and stresses the importance of examining environmental factors that could elicit and control violent behaviour. It is concluded that further research is required in three areas: (1) detection and recognition of a multiple crime perpetrator from crime scene evidence; (2) identification and recognition of risk factors within imprisoned and clinical populations; (3) identification of the treatment needs and the appropriate disposal of these offender. © 1994 The Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency.
    • The move from hospital: A long-term follow-up of challenging behaviour levels

      Collins, Graham; Halman, Freyja (1996)
      Levels of challenging behaviour were studied in a sample of 16 people who moved from a hospital to community settings. Ratings on the Challenging Behaviour Scales showed that aggression to residents decreased significantly. Aggression to staff and self-injurious behaviour showed non-significant downward trends but destruction of objects continued at prior levels. The study concluded that caution needs to be taken in using rating scales, and results from them should always be backed up by other evidence.
    • The influence of remorse, intent and attitudes toward sex offenders on judgments of a rapist

      Hogue, Todd E. (1997)
      In clinical settings, sexual offenders are encouraged to express remorse for their offending and acknowledge the extent to which they have acted intentionally. This study used a sample of 50 professionals, who regularly work with the victims and/or perpetrators of sexual offenses. A 2 × 2 design asked participants to make judgments on a short rape scenario varied on level of offender intent (spontaneous or planned) and offender remorse (remorseful or unremorseful). When acting with intent, the rapist was sentenced more punatively and rated as more to blame, more responsible, and more deserving of punishment. Ratings of the offender were strongly related to sentencing choice. Attitudes Towards Sex offenders were related to sentencing choice and were more predictive of sentencing type than the experimental manipulations. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the management of sexual offenders within the criminal justice system.
    • Assessing and managing forensic risk: How research findings can contribute to improving practice

      Hollin, Clive R. (1997)
      Following clarification of some basic terms, this article offers an overview of the literature that considers the actuarial assessment of risk of general reoffending, risk of violent reoffending and risk of sexual reoffending for mentally disordered offenders. It is suggested that we can build up this robust research base to devise clinically sensitive risk management systems. The outline of such a system is offered for discussion amongst colleagues working the field.
    • Sexual crime

      Duggan, Conor (1998)
      Sexual offending has assumed great importance in public consciousness as a result of high profile cases, so the management of such offenders places a significant burden on those who are responsible for their care. An important advance would be to recognize the heterogenous nature the behaviour of offenders, and to separate, for instance, child molesters from rapists. The likelihood of post imprisonment of those considered at high risk of reoffending necessitates that treatment should be pursued enthusiastically. However, given that current treatment effects are at best modest, that the predictive validity of risk assessments is poor, and that the risk of sexual reoffending is long-term, continuity of contact appears to be the best way to reduce further sexual crime.
    • Violent behavior associated with donepezil

      Bouman, Walter P.; Pinner, Gill (1998)
      Reports a case of violent behavior following the commencement of donepezil in a 76-yr-old male with a 2-yr history of cognitive impairment, diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease. Five days after donepezil, 5 mg daily, the S became paranoid, and beat his wife. The S agreed to hospital admission, avoiding compulsory detention. The S was started on haloperidol, .5 mg b.i.d, while his donepezil was discontinued. His paranoid ideation resolved after a few days and did not reoccur, despite withdrawal of haloperidol. Although a causal relationship between this incident and donepezil cannot be proven, a temporal relationship between commencement of donepezil and the behavioral disturbance warrants caution when prescribing this drug. It is noted that the manufacturer reports that 5% of patients taking donepezil have developed agitation, although only 1% with physical aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Measuring motivation to change in offenders

      McMurran, Mary; Hogue, Todd E. (1998)
      Measuring motivation to change in offender populations is important both for selection into treatment programmes and for assessing progress in therapy. Two studies are reported in this paper, both looking at the psychometric properties of questionnaires designed to measure stage of change in therapy. The samples used were patients detained in special hospitals under the Mental Health Act (1983) classification of psychopathic disorder. The first study provides norms for this group on the stages of change in psychotherapy questionnaire, plus some additional information on its relationship with self-esteem and self-efficacy measures. The second study looked at a brief version of the stages of change questionnaire, concluding that its psychometric properties were such that further use was contra-indicated.
    • Sensational interests and general personality traits

      Egan, Vincent; Auty, Jonathan; Miller, Rowan; Ahmadi, Shahla; Richardson, Cathryn; Gargan, Ian (1999)
      While an interest in guns, knives, true crime, the occult and Nazism is said to be common in sexually sadistic murderers, these topics are of interest to many rather less extreme individuals. A Sensational Interests Questionnaire (SIQ) was developed to measure violent and unusual interests in a sample of 301 individuals, over 100 of whom were mentally disordered offenders. The SIQ had high internal reliability and measured live dimensions: militarism; the violent-occult; intellectual interests; paranormal credulousness; and wholesome activities. Despite face-validity, some ostensibly sensational interests (for example, 'serial killers', 'true crime' and 'Hitler and Fascism') did not load significantly on the main factors of the SIQ. These items have high base-rates of interest in the general population, and thus lack discriminatory value. SIQ scores were correlated with the 'Big Five' personality traits (Openness; Conscientiousness; Extroversion; Agreeableness; and Neuroticism) as measured by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, and an estimate of verbal IQ. Hyper-masculine interests were independently associated with higher Extroversion and lower verbal IQ, while violent-occult interests were independently associated with lower Agreeableness and lower Conscientiousness; both factors were associated with younger age.
    • Treatment of heroin misuse and deviant sexual thoughts: Harm reduction or collusion?

      Milton, John; McLean, Philip (1999)
      This case-report details the management of an intravenous drug misuser who had become dependent upon heroin, citing its usefulness in depressing paedophilic urges. A discussion of the interaction between opiates and sexuality in addition to the clinical and ethical dilemmas of the case is presented.
    • Referrals for anger and aggression in forensic psychology outpatient services

      McMurran, Mary; Egan, Vincent (2000)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate a clinical observation in referrals to a forensic clinical psychology outpatient service: that anger was related to obsessional-compulsive behaviours, possibly as a substitute means of controlling situations. A secondary hypothesis was that control of situations by obsessional-compulsive behaviours would result in greater levels of anxiety and depression, since this is not this group's preferred means of control. Comparison of anger referrals (n = 34) and non-anger referrals (n = 25) on the State-Trait Anger Expression inventory (STAXI), the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive inventory (MOCI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) showed no support for either of these hypotheses. Additional data on the STAXI and HAD were added to the initial sample, thus providing norms on these measures for forensic outpatients. Anger referrals scored significantly higher on all but two scales of the STAXI, compared with non-anger referrals. No group differences were found on the HAD scales, with both groups showing moderately high levels of anxiety and depression.
    • Homicide in northern Nigeria: An evaluation of motives

      Mafullul, Yakubu M. (2000)
      A survey of the motives associated with homicide in northern Nigeria was conducted based on an interview of a sample of convicted homicide offenders in a Nigerian federal prison. 118 subjects with a mean age of 33.9 +/- 10.9 years at the time of their offenses, and comprising 84.9% of all homicide convicts participated in the study. A scrutiny of relevant court and prison records on each offender was carried out. Forty-three convicts had killed their victims in circumstances of group activity; economic (72.1%), political (11.6%), and religious (16.3%) motives accounted for their offenses. Seventy- five convicts had killed their victims in circumstances of one-to-one activity; various motives accounted for such events, including alcohol intoxication and psychiatric disorder (37.4%), sexual jealousy (17.3%), fights arising from personal insult and previous trespass (17.3%), revenge in relation to allegations of witchcraft (13.3%), Fulani tribesmen initiation rites (5.3%), self-defense and accidental killings (6.8%), and, the concealment of illegitimate pregnancy and childbirth (1.3%). The implications of these observations are discussed, and recommendations made on ways of reducing the needless loss of life in this Nigerian subregion.
    • Homicide in northern Nigeria: A clinico-forensic survey

      Mafullul, Yakubu M. (2000)
      The clinico-forensic aspects of homicide in northern Nigeria are presented, based on an interview of 118 subjects comprising 85% of homicide convicts at the Jos federal prison: Although psychotic motives and acute alcohol intoxication were held by the courts to account for the offenses of 24% of the accused, the study suggests that psychotic motives and substance use disorders (including alcohol intoxication) could be held to account for the offenses of 39.8% of the accused. There was under-utilization of psychiatric services in the trial and disposition of homicide offenders. A recommendation is made for greater liaison between the criminal justice system and mental health services.
    • Anger and general health in young offenders

      Swaffer, Tracey; Hollin, Clive R. (2001)
      There is a substantial literature that focuses upon the experience and expression of anger, and the effect that this might have upon an individual's general health. However, remarkably little is known about the relationship between anger and general health with young offenders. Using self-report measurements, the relationship between anger and general health is explored in a population of young offenders. The study showed that a series of significant relationships existed between young offenders' responses on measures of anger and their general health. The implication of these findings for both staff training and the development of anger management programmes is explored as well as methodological limitations.