• Sensational interests and general personality traits

      Egan, Vincent; Auty, Jonathan; Miller, Rowan; Ahmadi, Shahla; Richardson, Cathryn; Gargan, Ian (1999)
      While an interest in guns, knives, true crime, the occult and Nazism is said to be common in sexually sadistic murderers, these topics are of interest to many rather less extreme individuals. A Sensational Interests Questionnaire (SIQ) was developed to measure violent and unusual interests in a sample of 301 individuals, over 100 of whom were mentally disordered offenders. The SIQ had high internal reliability and measured live dimensions: militarism; the violent-occult; intellectual interests; paranormal credulousness; and wholesome activities. Despite face-validity, some ostensibly sensational interests (for example, 'serial killers', 'true crime' and 'Hitler and Fascism') did not load significantly on the main factors of the SIQ. These items have high base-rates of interest in the general population, and thus lack discriminatory value. SIQ scores were correlated with the 'Big Five' personality traits (Openness; Conscientiousness; Extroversion; Agreeableness; and Neuroticism) as measured by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, and an estimate of verbal IQ. Hyper-masculine interests were independently associated with higher Extroversion and lower verbal IQ, while violent-occult interests were independently associated with lower Agreeableness and lower Conscientiousness; both factors were associated with younger age.
    • Sex offender treatment

      Wong, Stephen C. P. (2014)
      The sexual victimization of children and adults is a serious social concern with severe mental health and emotional sequelae. Victims of sexual assault are at risk for developing severe depression and anxiety, difficulties in sexual functioning and intimate relationships, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation among other concerns. Child victims of sexual abuse are at marked risk for developing similar mental health symptoms following the abuse and this can extend into their adult years. As such, it is important to develop effective assessment and treatment interventions to address these offenders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Sex offenders — cure or management?

      Kaul, Adarsh (1993)
      A variety of biological, psychoanalytical and behavioural treatment strategies have been employed to treat sex offenders. Whilst these may produce short-term benefits, their efficacy in reducing long-term recidivism is uncertain. It is possible that treatment, as generally understood, is too ambitious an aim for this group of people and better results could be expected by employing a management strategy that includes treatment as well as life-long vigilant supervision. This can only be achieved if psychiatric services, which are used in continuing care, get involved in the management of sex offenders. © 1993, The British Academy of Forensic Sciences. All rights reserved.
    • Sexual crime

      Duggan, Conor (1998)
      Sexual offending has assumed great importance in public consciousness as a result of high profile cases, so the management of such offenders places a significant burden on those who are responsible for their care. An important advance would be to recognize the heterogenous nature the behaviour of offenders, and to separate, for instance, child molesters from rapists. The likelihood of post imprisonment of those considered at high risk of reoffending necessitates that treatment should be pursued enthusiastically. However, given that current treatment effects are at best modest, that the predictive validity of risk assessments is poor, and that the risk of sexual reoffending is long-term, continuity of contact appears to be the best way to reduce further sexual crime.
    • Sexual fantasy in paedophile offenders: Can any model explain satisfactorily new findings from a study of Internet and contact sexual offenders?

      Sheldon, Kerry L. (2008)
      Purpose. There is widespread acceptance that sexual fantasy plays a role in sexual offences but little clarity as the nature of this relationship. This paper seeks to understand better the role of fantasy in offending behaviour through the study of sexual fantasy in Internet child pornography offenders when compared with contact offenders. Differences in the patterns of sexual fantasy associated with the different offender types are explored in order to understand how fantasy content is associated with contact offences with children and desisting from such direct acting out. Methods. Participants were all convicted of child sexual offences and recruited with the help of the probation and prison services. Out of these, 16 were Internet-only offenders, 25 were contact offenders with no history of Internet offending and 10 were offenders with a mixed contact and Internet offending history. A variety of self-completion questionnaires including fantasy were completed on an individual basis together with a detailed interview. Results. The most common sexual fantasies were typical adult-male heterosexual fantasies though a variety of child-oriented and other fantasies were also common. Contact offenders reported fewer girl-oriented sexual fantasies although the groups did not differ in terms of terms of boy-oriented fantasies. There was evidence that confrontational fantasies were commoner among contact offenders than Internet offenders. There are relationships between early sexual experiences and fantasy but peer sexual contacts seemed to be important rather than sexual abuse. Conclusion. Generally, the contact offenders seem to have less sexual fantasy pertinent to their offending than did Internet offenders. Fantasy deficit may be involved in contact offending against children. © 2008 The British Psychological Society.
    • Sexual offenders

      Willmot, Phil (2013)
      Sexual offenders are likely to be among the most complex and challenging clients that forensic psychologists have to work with. While developing a respectful, compassionate and boundaried approach is important with any forensic group, such an approach is often more difficult but more essential with sexual offenders. It is important for forensic practice to be grounded in theoretical understanding of sexual offending, and this chapter begins with a theoretical overview of the subject. It deals with theoretical understandings of adult male sex offenders and particularly those whose offending involves physical contact with their victims. Different considerations apply to female and juvenile offenders and those involved in internet pornography. However the subsequent practical sections of this chapter arguably apply equally to all sexual offenders. It then goes on to consider the relationship between psychologist and sexual offender, a little considered aspect of this type of work, but an important one. The final section of this chapter will discuss particular considerations when assessing, formulating and disclosing reports to sexual offenders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Sexual offenders against children: The influence of personality and obsessionality on cognitive distortions

      Kavanagh, Beth; Blair, Marie (2005)
      Sexual offenders against children are generally inadequate in their social functioning and diverse in their psychopathology. The degree to which this inadequate functioning and psychopathology influences therapeutic interventions brings into question the belief that generic nonclinical programmatic treatment work is always appropriate for such a cohort. The Sex Offenders Assessment Package (SOAP) measures inadequate social functioning and sexual deviance, but has not been linked to broader individual differences and generic psychopathology. We collected information examining the relationship between the SOAP and standard measures of personality (the NEO-FFI) and obsessive-compulsiveness (MOCI) in a sample of 200 sexual offenders against children seen by the Probation Service. Factor analysis was used to reduce the SOAP to three reliable factors: emotional distress, cognitions supporting sex with children, and concern for others. These factors correlated respectively with higher Neuroticism and lower Extroversion; greater obsessive-compulsiveness on the MOCI, and trait Agreeableness, irrespective of whether or not one corrected for socially desirable responding. When partial correlation controlled for the influence of Neuroticism on the correlation between cognitions supporting sex with children and the MOCI, there was no change in the association between these variables. These results show that negative affect and obsessional tendencies are important underlying influences on the feelings and behavior of sexual offenders, that the obsessionality of the group is not attributable to Neuroticism, and suggest useful additional foci to enhance the treatment of this diverse clinical group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: journal abstract)
    • Shame and guilt in child molesters

      Howells, Kevin (2008)
      In this chapter, we draw on general psychological literature to argue for the relevance of shame and guilt for child molesters. In order to explore this issue, we outline the concepts of shame and guilt, reasons for expecting shame to be common in child molesters, and the functions of shame. Because others have discussed the impact of shame and guilt on the treatment issues of empathy and relapse prevention, we emphasize the influence of shame and guilt as factors in readiness for treatment. We discuss approaches to treatment that are likely to decrease shame. Finally, we discuss methods of assessing shame and guilt, and evaluate their usefulness for child molesters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: chapter)
    • Shoplifting and kleptomania

      Hamilton, Laura (2012)
    • Spousal role expectations and marital conflict: Perspectives of men and women

      McGarry, Julie (2020)
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects millions of people across the world and is associated with a significant impact on physical and mental health of the victim. IPV often takes place within the context of marriage, where gender role expectations can play an important part in shaping attitudes towards it. While there is much research carried out to understand the phenomenon of IPV, little relates to how a husband and wife's accounts of spousal role expectations of each other contribute to marital conflict. The issue of IPV within marriage is highly sensitive, particularly in a patriarchy such as Pakistan. The aim of this unique study was to explore the perspective of Pakistani men and women about a husband and wife's role expectations and how fulfillment of such spousal role expectations impacts on marital conflict, and thereby IPV. Using the community setting, data for this qualitative study were collected through 41 individual interviews, including 20 from Pakistan and 21 from the UK. The findings are presented in two main themes, each containing two subthemes. The theme "provider and protector" relates to the role expectations from a husband, whereas "caretaker and household manager" relates to the role expectations of a wife. Overall, husbands and wives have numerous expectations of each other, and these expectations are shaped by gender role attitudes alongside cultural and societal norms. Unmet expectations and deviation of behavior from the perceived norms can result in the development of marital conflict which can escalate to IPV. The significance of this study lies in understanding spousal role expectations from the perspectives of husbands and wives and how unmet expectations contribute to marital conflict and IPV is important for health care professionals within family health contexts. This article provides a detailed insight of this largely hidden phenomena.
    • Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of haloperidol plus promethazine plus chlorpromazine versus haloperidol plus promethazine for rapid tranquilisation for agitated psychiatric patients in the emergency setting (TREC-Lebanon) [In Press]

      Dib, Joseph E.; Adams, Clive E. (2020)
      Background: Agitated and aggressive behaviours are common in the psychiatric setting and rapid tranquilisation is sometimes unavoidable. A survey of Lebanese practice has shown that an intramuscular haloperidol, promethazine and chlorpromazine combination is a preferred form of treatment but there are no randomised trials of this triple therapy. Methods: This is a pragmatic randomised trial. Setting - the psychiatric wards of the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Jal Eddib, Lebanon. Participants - any adult patient in the hospital who displays an aggressive episode for whom rapid tranquilisation is unavoidable, who has not been randomised before, for whom there are no known contraindications. Randomisation - stratified (by ward) randomisation and concealed in closed opaque envelope by independent parties. Procedure - if the clinical situation arises requiring rapid tranquilisation, medical residents overseeing the patient will open a TREC-Lebanon envelope in which will be notification of which group of treatments should be preferred [Haloperidol + Promethazine + Chlorpromazine (HPC) or Haloperidol + Promethazine (HP)], along with forms for primary, secondary and serious adverse effects. Treatment is not given blindly. Outcome - primary outcome is calm or tranquil at 20 minutes post intervention. Secondary outcomes are calm/tranquil at 40, 60 and 120 minutes post intervention, asleep, adverse effects, use of straitjacket and leaving the ward. Follow-up will be up to two weeks post randomisation. Discussion: Findings from this study will compare the HPC versus HP combination used in Lebanon's psychiatry emergency routine practice. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03639558. Registration date, August 21, 2018.
    • Sub-types of angry aggression in antisocial youth: Relationships with self-reported delinquency and teachers' perceptions of social competence and emotional/behavioural problems

      Howard, Richard C. (2012)
      The present study examined associations between four motivationally distinct types of angry aggression (AA: explosive/reactive, thrill-seeking, coercive and vengeful/ruminative), antisocial behaviour, and teachers' perceptions of social competence, emotional and behavioural problems. Participants comprised 101 Norwegian adolescents ranging in age between 12 and 18 years who suffered from serious conduct problems. Results of regression analysis showed that vengeful/ruminative AA uniquely predicted participants' cognitive problems and their failure to cooperate as rated by their teachers. Thrill-seeking AA uniquely predicted all forms of self-reported delinquency. Explosive/reactive AA uniquely predicted self-reported expulsion from school and teacher ratings of poor self-control and externalizing behaviour problems. Teacher-rated affective disturbance in youths was negatively associated with thrill-seeking and positively associated with explosive/reactive and vengeful/ruminative forms of AA. Results provide further validation of the Angry Aggression Scales and confirm that the quest for excitement is an important motivation for antisocial behaviour in youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Summary and future directions

      Jones, Lawrence F.; Daffern, Michael (2010)
      The aim of this book is to assemble and present various methods that are being used to identify and use offence paralleling behavior (OPB). Our intended audience is academics and clinicians who are interested in case formulation within forensic psychology and others who are explicatively researching or using OPB in their clinical practice. We also hope this book will be a stimulus for empirical research and further conceptual and theoretical refinement of this framework. At present, there is an absence of empirical evidence to support any one particular offence paralleling methodology. The varied approaches to the assessment of OPB are offered for readers to consider, scrutinize, evaluate and apply, if appropriate. In calling for contributions to this book, we were specifically interested in similarities and differences in approaches to offence paralleling behavior (OPB) conceptualization and use. After reviewing the chapters, it is fair to say that there is more similarity than difference. In the following section, we present the major areas of similarity and comment on some important differences in conceptualization and recommendations for practice. We shall express what we believe are important considerations for practitioners invoking the OPB framework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(chapter)
    • The characteristics and course after discharge of mentally disordered homicide and non-homicide offenders

      Clarke, Martin; McCarthy, Lucy; Huband, Nick; Davies, Steffan; Hollin, Clive R.; Duggan, Conor (2016)
      The aim of this article was to compare the characteristics and outcome of homicide and non-homicide mentally disordered patients all of whom had been hospitalised. Seventy-four patients with a homicide conviction were compared with 521 convicted of a non-homicide offense. The former group were older, were more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia but less likely to have suffered from childhood adversity, and had less criminality. They also had fewer convictions during the follow-up. Little distinguished these two groups with both suffering from multiple disadvantages suggesting the need for ongoing care and support.
    • The dangerous offender provisions of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 and their implications for psychiatric evidence in sentencing violent and sexual offenders

      Bickle, Andrew (2008)
      Psychiatric evidence is used to assist in the sentencing of a significant minority of violent and sexual offenders. Historically, indeterminate sentences have been reserved for those offenders demonstrating mental instability. The Criminal Justice Act 2003 ('the Act') introduces a range of new sentences for dangerous offenders and a statutory test of 'dangerousness'. It extends indeterminate sentences to a broader group of offenders and removes much judicial discretion in sentencing violent and sexual offenders. However, in early cases the courts have been disinclined to follow more radical interpretations of the Act. It is contended that in many future cases expert psychiatric evidence will be used to support or undermine the new assumption of dangerousness. It appears that expert psychiatric evidence needs to address risk within the framework and terminology of the Act. This paper will summarise the Act and review the emerging case law relevant to psychiatric evidence before considering the information from which an expert witness will benefit in such cases.
    • The development of CBT programmes for anger: The role of interventions to promote perspective-taking skills

      Howells, Kevin (2008)
      Although the emotion of anger has, in recent years, been the subject of increasing theoretical analysis, there are relatively few accounts of how interventions designed to reduce problematic anger might be related to cognitively oriented theories of emotion. In this review of the literature we describe how a cognitive-behavioural approach to the treatment of those with anger-related problems might be understood in relation to conceptualizations of anger from a cognitive perspective. Three additional interventions (visual feedback, chair-work, forgiveness therapy) are identified that aim to improve the perspective-taking skills of angry clients. It is concluded that such interventions might be considered for use within the context of cognitive-behavioural treatment. © 2008 British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies.
    • The effectiveness of violence reduction treatment for psychopathic offenders: Empirical evidence and a treatment model

      Wong, Stephen C. P. (2012)
      Psychopathy, a personality disorder, is characterized by dysfunctional and externalizing affective and interpersonal traits that can be manifested as violent and antisocial behaviors. Psychopathic individuals are often referred for treatment in criminal justice or forensic mental health settings to reduce the harm they may inflict on themselves and others. While the 'what works' treatment approaches to reduce recidivism and violence have enjoyed widespread support, therapeutic nihilism for psychopathy abounds. A two-component model is proposed to provide a conceptual framework for the treatment of psychopathy. Three studies on the treatment of psychopathic offenders to reduce violence and offending behaviors are reviewed and show positive treatment outcomes. The study results support the efficacy for the treatment of psychopathic individuals and for the proposed model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • The efficacy of violence prediction: A meta-analytic comparison of nine risk assessment tools

      Wong, Stephen C. P. (2010)
      Actuarial risk assessment tools are used extensively to predict future violence, but previous studies comparing their predictive accuracies have produced inconsistent findings as a result of various methodological issues. We conducted meta-analyses of the effect sizes of 9 commonly used risk assessment tools and their subscales to compare their predictive efficacies for violence. The effect sizes were extracted from 28 original reports published between 1999 and 2008, which assessed the predictive accuracy of more than one tool. We used a within-subject design to improve statistical power and multilevel regression models to disentangle random effects of variation between studies and tools and to adjust for study features. All 9 tools and their subscales predicted violence at about the same moderate level of predictive efficacy with the exception of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Factor 1, which predicted violence only at chance level among men. Approximately 25% of the total variance was due to differences between tools, whereas approximately 85% of heterogeneity between studies was explained by methodological features (age, length of follow-up, different types of violent outcome, sex, and sex-related interactions). Sex-differentiated efficacy was found for a small number of the tools. If the intention is only to predict future violence, then the 9 tools are essentially interchangeable; the selection of which tool to use in practice should depend on what other functions the tool can perform rather than on its efficacy in predicting violence. The moderate level of predictive accuracy of these tools suggests that they should not be used solely for some criminal justice decision making that requires a very high level of accuracy such as preventive detention. © 2010 American Psychological Association.
    • The efficacy, safety and ethics of the use of testosterone-suppressing agents in the management of sex offending

      Mashru, Asha (2016)
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of endocrine medications to reduce sexual offending recidivism is established and may involve clinicians from diverse specialities. The present review aims to outline relevant background information and note a Medical Ethics framework upon which to facilitate decision-making.