• Challenging behaviour and insecure attachment

      Clegg, Jennifer (2002)
      The present authors previously investigated a database about people with severe intellectual disability (ID) to explore whether secure/insecure attachment plays a role in challenging behaviour. This study took the form of a survey of staff and carers involved with a cohort of 54 school-leavers with severe ID. 34% percent of students were rated by placement staff as "overinvesting in one or a few relationships which become a source of jealousy". Students without such problems were significantly less likely to show challenging behaviours, while those with them were significantly more likely to be living outside the family home. These preliminary results justify more detailed and longitudinal research into the relationship between attachment status and challenging behaviour. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Practice-based outcomes of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) targeting anger and violence, with male forensic patients: A pragmatic and non-contemporaneous comparison

      Evershed, Sue; Tennant, Allison; Boomer, Debbie (2003)
      OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of an eighteen-month treatment based on dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) targeting anger and violence, on a group of male forensic patients.
    • An overview of the relationship between moral reasoning and offending

      Palmer, Emma J. (2003)
      Through research it has been established that there is a relationship between level of moral reasoning and offending behaviour, with offenders generally reasoning at less mature levels than non-offenders. However, recent research looking at this association in more detail has revealed that it may be only certain moral values that are associated with offending. There has also been little research on the psychological mechanisms that may mediate the relationship between moral reasoning and offending. Therefore, this paper attempts to place moral reasoning theory into a wider theoretical model of delinquency, arguing that the development of moral reasoning and other social cognitive processes are influenced by children's early socialisation experiences. These social cognitive factors, such as social information processing and the cognitions that impact on this (including moral reasoning), are seen as significant in determining individuals' behaviour in social situations. This theory is then used as a basis for suggestions for incorporating moral reasoning into effective interventions with offenders.
    • Anger and its links to violent offending

      Howells, Kevin (2004)
      The emotion of anger is clearly important as an antecedent for many forms of violence. In this article I describe some contemporary influential psychological ideas about the nature of anger and its links with aggressive and violent behaviour. I also describe the application of such ideas to therapeutic interventions with violent offenders in the form of 'anger management' and similar programmes. I review the evidence for and against the effectiveness of these interventions and make suggestions as to how outcomes, including reductions in reoffending, might be improved. Finally, I propose that a broader approach is needed for the future. Interventions to reduce anger-related violence need to focus on the psychological readiness of the client on developing a broader theoretical orientation and on primary prevention.
    • The process of overcoming denial in sexual offenders

      Willmot, Phil (2004)
      This study examined the process by which convicted sexual offenders move out of denial and the factors which influence their decision to admit. Twenty-four convicted sexual offenders were interviewed in focus groups and a further 36 convicted sexual offenders who had previously been in denial of their offences underwent a semi-structured interview which explored their reasoning for reducing defensiveness and leaving denial. The results of content analysis supported the "adaptational" model of denial and identified three groups of factors which appear to influence denial: motivational/insight; threats to self-esteem; and fear of negative, extrinsic consequences. An integrated theoretical model of denial is proposed and implications for future research and the development of a theory-based treatment programme for deniers are proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Offence Paralleling Behaviour (OPB) as a framework for assessment and interventions with offenders

      Jones, Lawrence F. (2004)
      Forensic psychologists, perhaps more than any other group of applied psychologists, need to work with various types of historical narrative, often describing the same set of events. Unfortunately, most methods for analysing behaviour in the psychological literature (e.g. functional analysis) focus on discrete episodes. With the notable exception, perhaps, of Gresswell and Hollin's (1992) 'multiple sequential functional analysis' paradigm, there is a general paucity of literature that attempts to grapple with the complexity of behaviour as a diachronic process. This problem comes, I believe, out of the more fundamental methodological problem of finding ways of modelling and operationalizing hypotheses about offences as processes as opposed to events. The concept of an 'offence' is not defined scientifically, it is a particular, socially defined value-driven way of describing certain types of behaviour. This chapter attempts to open up some of the questions about why and how, as forensic psychologists, we need to look at behaviour as a sequential development. In addition, it explores the ways in which viewing behaviour in this way enables practitioners to work with a broader range of psychological and behavioural processes that are helpful to the tasks of risk assessment and addressing offending behaviour. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • New directions in assessing risk for sexual offenders

      Hogue, Todd E. (2004)
      Risk assessment is the cornerstone of effective offender management. The identification of the risks posed by offender and the factors associated with recidivism are crucial to the identification of appropriate and effective interventions designed to reduce the risk of recidivism. While it is generally accepted that the predictive accuracy of actuarial methods outperforms clinical judgement, critics of the actuarial approach argue that the limitations of actuarial risk assessments are such that experts have yet to reach consensus on the best risk factors for predictive accuracy and methods for combining these risk factors into an overall evaluation. This paper considers a number of important conceptual issues associated with the assessment of risk for sexual offenders and offers an alternative approach to risk appraisal. The Multiaxial Risk Appraisal (MARA) model encourages a more global approach to the assessment of risk and examines 'nomothetic' (actuarial scales and psychometric assessments of psychopathology and psychosexual characteristics) and 'idiographic' (empirically guided clinical assessment and dynamic changes in risk) approaches. One of the advantages of using the MARA model is that the resultant assessment considers the theoretical possibility that there are different aetiological pathways impacting on an offender's risk of recidivism and allows for the inclusion of dynamic risk-related information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Anger, over-control and serious violent offending

      Howells, Kevin (2005)
      With few exceptions, existing theoretical and clinical analyses of anger in relation to violence have concerned themselves with the understanding and management of high levels of angry experience and low levels of anger control. In contrast, clinical observations and other accounts of those with histories of extreme violence have identified inhibited or unexpressed anger as an important antecedent for some forms of violence. In this paper we review existing models and accounts of dysfunctional low levels of angry experience and/or expression, apply recently developed theories of emotional regulation to these problems, and discuss some of the implications of this work for the delivery of anger management programs for seriously violent offenders. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Sexual offenders against children: The influence of personality and obsessionality on cognitive distortions

      Kavanagh, Beth; Blair, Marie (2005)
      Sexual offenders against children are generally inadequate in their social functioning and diverse in their psychopathology. The degree to which this inadequate functioning and psychopathology influences therapeutic interventions brings into question the belief that generic nonclinical programmatic treatment work is always appropriate for such a cohort. The Sex Offenders Assessment Package (SOAP) measures inadequate social functioning and sexual deviance, but has not been linked to broader individual differences and generic psychopathology. We collected information examining the relationship between the SOAP and standard measures of personality (the NEO-FFI) and obsessive-compulsiveness (MOCI) in a sample of 200 sexual offenders against children seen by the Probation Service. Factor analysis was used to reduce the SOAP to three reliable factors: emotional distress, cognitions supporting sex with children, and concern for others. These factors correlated respectively with higher Neuroticism and lower Extroversion; greater obsessive-compulsiveness on the MOCI, and trait Agreeableness, irrespective of whether or not one corrected for socially desirable responding. When partial correlation controlled for the influence of Neuroticism on the correlation between cognitions supporting sex with children and the MOCI, there was no change in the association between these variables. These results show that negative affect and obsessional tendencies are important underlying influences on the feelings and behavior of sexual offenders, that the obsessionality of the group is not attributable to Neuroticism, and suggest useful additional foci to enhance the treatment of this diverse clinical group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: journal abstract)
    • Review of 'Sexual deviance: Issues and controversies'

      Withers, Jackie (2005)
      Reviews the book "Sexual Deviance: Issues and Controversies," edited by Tony Ward, D. Richard Laws and Stephen M. Hudson (2003). The book attempts to address theoretical and treatment issues raised by the relationship between theory and practice. The overall aim is to stimulate a critical discussion and review of ideas and values underpinning research and treatment of sex offenders. It covers a wide range of theories and approaches to treatment that include biological, developmental, cultural and learning theories of sexual deviancy. The first ten chapters focus more on conceptual issues; the second part of the book is concerned with therapeutic approaches to sexual deviance. The first chapter considers the role of theory in the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders. Another chapter challenges the popular risk management approach to rehabilitation. Each chapter in the second half identifies an area of need for further development in the management of sexual deviance and puts forward an argument for addressing this. Thus the book encourages an in depth understanding of people who sexually offend. Also, it will be of particular value to students and practitioners who are relatively new to the field of sexual deviance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • Epidemiology of offending in learning disability

      Johnston, Susan J. (2005)
      This chapter provides a detailed account of the epidemiology of offending behaviour in people with learning disabilities. Personal and professional perspectives are offered, together with a foray into studies of prevalence, and personal and offending characteristics. The chapter goes on to outline a variety of therapeutic approaches.
    • Brief anger management programs with offenders: Outcomes and predictors of change

      Howells, Kevin (2005)
      Anger management interventions with offenders, particularly violent offenders, are a common form of rehabilitative activity. The rationale for addressing anger problems is clear-cut and there is good evidence that anger management can be effective with some client populations. Information relating to effectiveness with serious offenders, however, is sparse. An intervention study is reported in which offenders receiving anger management were compared with waiting list controls on a range of dependent measures. In general, the degree of pre-treatment/post-treatment change was small and experimental versus control differences were not statistically significant. The degree of improvement was found to be predictable from pretreatment measures of anger and treatment readiness. Explanations of the low impact of anger management on violent offenders are discussed and recommendations made for improving outcomes.
    • Individual characteristics predisposing patients to aggression in a forensic psychiatric hospital

      Howells, Kevin (2005)
      The assessment and management of aggression have become crucial components of psychiatric inpatient care and the focus of considerable research attention. This study examined the relationships between characteristics of psychiatric inpatients with aggressive behaviour in a forensic psychiatric hospital. Demographic and clinical characteristics, patients' social behaviour, and histories of aggression and substance use were obtained for every patient admitted to the Thomas Embling Hospital, a secure forensic psychiatric hospital, during 2002. Of these patients, 110 completed an additional assessment of psychotic symptoms and a battery of psychological tests measuring anger expression and control, assertiveness, and impulsivity. Results indicated that a recent history of substance use, an entrenched history of aggression, recent antisocial behaviour, and symptoms of psychosis including thought disturbance, auditory hallucinations, and conceptual disorganisation contributed to aggression. © 2005 Taylor & Francis.
    • Understanding violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents

      Baker, Karen (2006)
      Antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a common problem presented to professional involved with child health. This paper describes recent advances in the understanding of its aetiology and management. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Different actuarial risk measures produce different risk rankings for sexual offenders

      Langton, Calvin M. (2006)
      Percentile ranks were computed for N = 262 sex offenders using each of 5 actuarial risk instruments commonly used with adult sex offenders (RRASOR, Static-99, VRAG, SORAG, and MnSOST-R). Mean differences between percentile ranks obtained by different actuarial measures were found to vary inversely with the correlation between the actuarial scores. Following studies of factor analyses of actuarial items, we argue that the discrepancies among actuarial instruments can be substantially accounted for by the way in which the factor Antisocial Behavior and various factors reflecting sexual deviance are represented among the items contained in each instrument. In the discussion, we provide guidance to clinicians in resolving discrepancies between instruments and we discuss implications for future developments in sex offender risk assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)
    • The factor structure of static actuarial items: Its relation to prediction

      Langton, Calvin M. (2006)
      Principal components analysis was conducted on items contained in actuarial instruments used with adult sex offenders, including: the Rapid Assessment of Sex Offender Risk for Recidivism (RASORR), the Static-99, the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG), and the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R). In a data set that included child molesters and rapists (N = 311), six interpretable components were identified: Antisocial Behavior, Child Sexual Abuse, Persistence, Detached Predatory Behavior, Young and Single, and Male Victim(s). The RRASOR was highly correlated with Persistence, and the VRAG and SORAG were highly correlated with Antisocial Behavior. Antisocial Behavior was a significant predictor of violent recidivism, while Persistence and Child Sexual Abuse were significant predictors of sexual recidivism. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
    • A systematic review of the safety and effectiveness of restraint and seclusion as interventions for the short-term management of violence in adult psychiatric inpatient settings and emergency departments

      Johnston, Susan J. (2006)
      Aims: The aim of this review was to assess whether restraint and seclusion are safe and effective interventions for the short-term management of disturbed/violent behaviour. Staff and service user perspectives on the use of these interventions were also considered. The review was undertaken as part of the development process for a national guideline on the short-term management of disturbed/violent behaviour in adult psychiatric inpatient settings and emergency departments in the United Kingdom. Method: An exhaustive literature search was undertaken. Systematic reviews, before and after studies, as well as qualitative studies were included. Searches were run from 1985 to 2002. Findings: Thirty-six eligible studies were identified. However, none were randomised controlled trials. Most of the included studies had many limitations, such as small sample sizes, confounders not adequately accounted for, potential selection bias, poorly reported results, and lack of clarity as to whether mechanical restraints were used. This review must therefore be viewed as a mapping exercise, which illustrates the range and quality of studies that have been undertaken in this area to date. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Insufficient evidence is available to determine whether seclusion and restraint are safe and/or effective interventions for the short-term management of disturbed/violent behaviour in adult psychiatric inpatient settings. These interventions should therefore be used with caution and only as a last resort once other methods of calming a situation and/or service user have failed. Copyright © 2006 Sigma Theta Tau International.
    • Reliability and validity of the static-2002 among adult sexual offenders with reference to treatment status

      Langton, Calvin M. (2007)
      Psychometric properties were reported for the Static-2002 using a sample of 464 sexual offenders followed for an average of 5.9 years after release. Correlations between theoretically relevant variables (using indices of lifestyle instability, sexual deviance, psychopathy) and the Static-2002 content area subscales reflected the conceptual emphasis underlying the content areas. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a five-factor solution generally congruent with the conceptual structure of the Static-2002. Survival analyses indicated not all of the content areas had incremental validity in the prediction of either sexual or any violent recidivism. Moderate-to-high levels of predictive accuracy for total score were achieved for treatment completers, dropouts, and refusers across four recidivism outcomes. Three risk categories were identified with significantly different rates of both sexual and any violent recidivism; failure rates and likelihood ratios for these risk categories over 5-, 7-, and 10-year follow-up periods were reported. © 2007 American Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology.
    • Interaction between individual characteristic and the function of aggression in forensic psychiatric inpatients

      Daffern, Michael; Howells, Kevin (2007)
      Aggression occurs regularly on many psychiatric wards; its assessment, prevention and management are fundamental aspects of contemporary psychiatric inpatient treatment. In response to the need to understand aggression in this context a considerable body of research has accumulated, clarifying the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients that contribute to an increased propensity for aggressive behaviour. Concurrent research has identified a range of situational demands, antecedent interactions, functions and precipitants to aggressive behaviour. Rarely has research attempted to understand how these predisposing characteristics sensitise a patient to environmental events, or predispose a patient to act aggressively for particular purposes. This article describes the results of a study that examined the interaction of demographic, clinical, affective and behavioural characteristics with the function of aggressive behaviour. Results revealed several statistically significant relationships. In these instances, the individual characteristics evidently predisposed patients to an increased risk of aggression that satisfied or attempted to satisfy certain functions. Awareness of these associations might assist in the delineation of methods for managing a patient during hospitalisation; patients could be assisted to satisfy psychological needs and staff may be able to provide psychiatric treatment in a manner that reduces the likelihood of aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • The role of the mental health professional in cases of online sexual activity

      Taylor, Nicholas (2007)
      This article seeks to explore the role of the mental health professional when involved with assessment and management of individuals with a history of online sexual activity. This is a relatively new area for many professionals, who are often unaware of the novel and expanding theoretical base for work in this area. A review is provided of the aetiological theories relating to online sexual activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)