Recent Submissions

  • Single session and short-term exercise for mental health promotion in tertiary students: A scoping review

    Carter, Tim (2021)
    Exercise can improve mental health; however many tertiary students do not reach recommended levels of weekly engagement. Short-term exercise may be more achievable for tertiary students to engage in to promote mental health, particularly during times of high stress. The current scoping review aimed to provide an overview of controlled trials testing the effect of short-term (single bout and up to 3 weeks) exercise across mental health domains, both at rest and in response to an experimentally manipulated laboratory stress task, in tertiary students. The search was conducted using 'Evidence Finder,' a database of published and systematic reviews and controlled trials of interventions in the youth mental health field. A total of 14 trials meet inclusion criteria, six measured mental health symptoms in response to an experimentally manipulated laboratory stress task and the remaining eight measured mental health symptoms. We found that short-term exercise interventions appeared to reduce anxiety like symptoms and anxiety sensitivity and buffered against a drop in mood following an experimentally manipulated laboratory stress task. There was limited available evidence testing the impacts of exercise on depression like symptoms and other mental health mental health domains, suggesting further work is required. Universities should consider implementing methods to increase student knowledge about the relationship between physical exercise and mental health and student access to exercise facilities.
  • Motivation and willingness to increase physical activity for dementia risk reduction: Cross-Sectional UK survey with people aged 50 and over

    Jones, Katy A.; Orrell, Martin (2021)
    METHODSAttitudes to increasing physical activity to reduce risk of dementia were assessed in a national online survey promoted via online forums and public adverts. The Motivation to Change Behaviour for Dementia Risk Reduction (MOCHAD-10) scale examined motivation for lifestyle change. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of willingness and motivation to increase physical activity.RESULTSData from 3,948 individuals showed most people were moderately/very physically active (80%). People more likely to be physically active had better health and education, were older, male, and had a partner. People willing to increase physical activity (73%) were more likely to be younger, non-White, underweight, had better health and lifestyles, and had experience caring for someone with dementia. People with higher levels of motivation to change lifestyle (MOCHAD-10 subscales) were more likely to be female, younger, in poorer physical/mental health, had lower perceived mental activity, and were a carer for someone with dementia.CONCLUSIONMen and those with better health status were more physically active. Those who exercised less and those who were more motivated to increase physical activity were not necessarily able to be physically active. Multisectoral public health strategies should seek to use the high motivation levels among this group to mitigate the barriers related to physical activity for dementia risk reduction.
  • Physical health monitoring in antipsychotic depot clinic

    Davies, Rebecca; Priya, Anu; Bhogal, Hardev; Omodara, Adesola; Mittal, Shweta (2021)
    Aims A service evaluation project to look at if annual bloods, ECG, physical examination, and medical review was completed within the last year for patients attending anti-psychotic depot clinic at Bassetlaw mental health services in Nottinghamshire HealthCare NHS Foundation Trust. Method Electronic notes were examined in October 2020 for 25 patients who attend anti-psychotic depot clinic to ascertain if medical review and physical examination had been completed along with annual bloods and ECG. Result Out of 25 patients attending depot clinic in 2020 at Bassetlaw Hospital, 21 had all their blood tests done, 1 patient had refused bloods and 2 patients did not have blood tests done. ECG was completed for 3 patients at Bassetlaw hospital and 8 patients had it requested from primary care with 2 patients refusing to have ECG done. For 12 patients there was no evidence of ECG being requested or completed. 8 patients had physical examination completed and rest 17 patients did not have the physical examination completed including due to refusal. Out of 25, only 14 patients had a medical review conducted. Conclusion Patients who attend depot clinic may have an allocated community psychiatric nurse (CPN) or get reviewed by medics in outpatient clinics and would usually have their blood tests, physical health examination and ECGs requested and monitored by them. Patients who do not have any allocated CPN or medic tend to miss out on blood tests and ECG. General Practitioners are expected to complete physical health checks for patients who do not have CPN or regular outpatient review. The results of these investigations may not always be received in depot clinic, hence there is no documentation on electronic RIO system. When these patients disengage from the depot clinic, it is often very difficult to track them. As a follow-up from this service evaluation, all depot clinic patients will be allocated a key worker/CPN. This will ensure that they have a responsible person to facilitate annual checks. This will be reviewed in a years' time to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention.
  • Poor reporting of physical activity and exercise interventions in youth mental health trials: A brief report

    Carter, Tim (2020)
    AIMTo describe the quality and completeness of the description and reporting of physical activity and exercise interventions delivered to young people to promote mental health or treat mental illness.METHODSWe conducted a series of scoping reviews identifying 64 controlled trials of physical activity and exercise interventions delivered to young people. We extracted: intervention characteristics, personnel and delivery format, the intensity, duration, frequency and type of physical activity or exercise.RESULTSThere was limited reporting of intervention details across studies; 52% did not provide information to confidently assess intervention intensity, 29% did not state who delivered the intervention, and 44% did not specify the intervention delivery format.CONCLUSIONSWe recommend that authors adhere to the CONSORT reporting requirements and its intervention reporting extensions, (a) the Template for Intervention Description and Replication, (b) Consensus for Exercise Reporting Template and (c) as part of this, detail the frequency, intensity, time and type of physical activity recommendations and prescriptions. Without this, future trials are unable to replicate and extend previous work to support or disconfirm existing knowledge, leading to research waste and diminishing translation and implementation potential.
  • Adherence to exercise interventions in older people with mild cognitive impairment and dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Di Lorito, Claudio; Bosco, Alessandro (2020)
    Adherence to physical exercise is associated with multiple benefits in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Given the gap in research, this systematic literature review aimed to determine in the context of exercise intervention studies for people with MCI and dementia: 1. How adherence is defined, monitored and recorded; 2. Adherence rates; 3. Attrition, compliance and adverse events and 4. Intervention characteristics associated with adherence. Embase, Medline, PsychInfo, SPORTDiscus, AMED, CINAHL and the International Bibliography of Social Sciences were searched in November 2018. The data were analyzed through descriptive and correlation/inferential statistics. Forty-one studies were included, 34 involving participants with dementia (n = 2149) and seven participants with MCI (n = 970). Half of the studies operationally defined adherence. Mean adherence rate was 70% [CI, 69–73%]. Adherence was significantly associated with endurance/resistance training, and interventions not including walking. The review found a lack of consistency around reporting of adherence and of key variables mediating adherence, including compliance, attrition and adverse events. Further research using more reliable measures is needed to confirm whether a correlation exists between length of interventions and adherence in participants with MCI and dementia and to identify the factors or strategies that mediate adherence in this population. Relevant implications for practice include a consideration in the development of new interventions of elements associated with higher adherence in this review, such as endurance/resistance training, and the provision of exercise in group formats.
  • Exercise interventions for mental disorders in young people: A scoping review

    Carter, Tim (2020)
    AimsThis scoping review determines the breadth and outcomes of controlled trials testing the effect of physical activity/exercise interventions across mental health outcomes in young people with a mental disorder.MethodsThe literature search was conducted using the open-access 'Evidence Finder', a comprehensive youth mental health-specific database that is systematically populated from MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane CENTRAL databases.ResultsSixteen publications were identified after meeting the following eligibility criteria: (1) participants were young people (mean age 12-25.9 years) with a mental disorder diagnosed by a trained clinician or by reaching a predefined cut score on a symptom measure, (2) interventions were exercise, (3) designs were randomised or non-randomised controlled trials, (4) outcomes were mental health related. Eight studies included young people with depression, three included people with psychosis/schizophrenia, three included people with eating disorders and two included people with anxiety. The available evidence suggests that moderate-to-vigorous-intensity exercise may be beneficial, particularly for reducing depression. The available evidence for other intervention intensities, and for other mental disorders, is mixed.ConclusionsOverall, the evidence regarding the impact of exercise interventions on a range of mental health outcomes in clinical populations of young people with various mental disorders looks promising but requires further development. Findings from this scoping review can inform the development of future exercise interventions in the youth mental health field.
  • The modified functional comorbidity index performed better than the Charlson index and original functional comorbidity index in predicting functional outcome in geriatric rehabilitation: A prospective observational study

    Godfrey, Deborah (2020)
    Background: In the inpatient rehabilitation of older patients, estimating to what extent the patient may functionally recover (functional prognosis), is important to plan the rehabilitation programme and aid discharge planning. Comorbidity is very common in older patients. However, the role of comorbidity in making a functional prognosis is not clearly defined. The aim of this study was to investigate a modified and weighted Functional Comorbidity Index (w-FCI) in relation to functional recovery and compare its predictive performance with that of the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and the original Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI). Methods: The COOPERATION study (Comorbidity and Outcomes of Older Patients Evaluated in RehabilitATION) is a prospective observational cohort study. Data of patients that were admitted in an inpatient geriatric rehabilitation facility in the UK between January and September 2017, were collected. The outcome measures were: The Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS) and Barthel index (BI) at discharge, EMS gain/day and BI gain/day. Baseline comorbidity was assessed using the CCI, the FCI and the w-FCI. Correlations, receiver operating curves (ROC), and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. The models were adjusted for age, gender and EMS or BI on admission. Results: In total, 98 patients (mean age 82 years; 37% male) were included. The areas under the ROC curves of the w-FCI (EMS at discharge: 0.72, EMS gain/day: 0.72, BI at discharge: 0.66 and BI gain/day: 0.60) were higher than for the CCI (0.50, 0.53, 0.49, 0.44 respectively) and FCI (0.65, 0.55, 0.60, 0.49 respectively). The w-FCI was independently associated with EMS at discharge (20.7% of variance explained (PVE), p < 0.001), EMS gain/day (11.2PVE, p < 0.001), and BI at discharge (18.3 PVE, p < 0.001). The FCI was only associated with EMS gain/day (3.9 PVE, p < 0.05). None of the comorbidity indices contributed significantly to BI gain/day (w-FCI: 2.4 PVE, p > 0.05). Conclusions: The w-FCI was predictive of mobility & function at discharge and mobility gain per day, and outperformed the original FCI and the CCI. The w-FCI could be useful in assessing comorbidity in a personalised way and aid functional prognosis at the start of rehabilitation. © 2020 The Author(s).
  • External validation of the ‘PHYT in dementia’, A theoretical model promoting physical activity in people with dementia

    Bosco, Alessandro; das Nair, Roshan (2020)
    Physical activity is beneficial for people with dementia. We previously developed a theoretical model to explain behaviour change in physical activity in dementia (PHYT-in-dementia). This study aimed to externally validate the model. Validation occurred through the process evaluation of a programme promoting activity in people with dementia (PrAISED 2). Twenty participants with dementia and their carers were interviewed to investigate their experience of the programme. The data were analysed through content analysis. The original constructs of the model were used as initial codes and new codes were generated, if elicited from the data. The constructs were also ranked, based on their frequency in the interviews. All of the original model constructs were validated and two novel constructs created: ‘personal history’ and ‘information/knowledge’. Certain constructs (e.g., support) were more frequently mentioned than others (e.g., personal beliefs). We suggested modifications and integrated them into a revised model. The PHYT-in-dementia recognised that dementia has an impact on motivation to initiate and maintain behaviour change over time. The model advocates that interventions adopt a more holistic approach than traditional behaviour change strategies. The suggested revisions require further validation to accurately predict behaviour change in physical activity in people with dementia. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Physical activity and exercise in youth mental health promotion: A scoping review

    Carter, Tim (2020)
    Background/Aim This scoping review examined the breadth and outcomes of controlled trials testing the effect of physical activity and exercise interventions across all mental health outcomes for mental health promotion and indicated prevention studies in young people. Methods The literature search was conducted using 'Evidence Finder'. Results Thirty publications were included. Available evidence suggested that interventions of varying intensity may lead to a reduction in depression symptoms and that moderate-to-vigorous-intensity and light-intensity interventions may reduce anxiety symptoms. Effects of physical activity/exercise interventions on additional mental health outcomes were also shown; however, the number of studies was small, indicating a limited evidence base. Robust research regarding the effects of physical activity/exercise on mental health promotion and as an indicated prevention strategy in young people is lacking. Conclusion The available evidence suggests that physical activity/exercise is a promising mental health promotion and early intervention strategy and warrants further investigation. © 2020 Royal Society of Chemistry. All rights reserved.
  • Swimming for dementia: An exploratory qualitative study: Innovative practice

    Dening, Tom (2019)
    Swimming is a non-weight bearing form of exercise that can be enjoyable and promote physical fitness. This qualitative study investigated a local group established as part of a national dementia swimming initiative. Semi-structured interviews with people with dementia (N = 4), carers of companions (N = 4) and the organisers and facilitators of the group (N = 6) were analysed using thematic analysis. This revealed four main themes: (1) the pleasure of swimming and its benefits as a form of exercise and for building confidence and empowering participants, (2) the importance of insight and empathy in creating a safe and secure experience, (3) the impact of dementia and (4) how participants valued being part of a group 'all in the same boat'. 'Dementia friendly swimming' appears to be a valuable form of exercise, but it requires considerable preparation and support to make it happen.
  • SKIP (Supporting Kids with diabetes In Physical activity): Feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a digital intervention for 9-12 year olds with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Glazebrook, Cris; Davies, E. Bethan; Amor, Lori (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Physical activity and self-monitoring are important for children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) but it is unclear whether interventions delivered online are feasible, acceptable to patients and efficacious. The aim was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an internet-based physical activity and self-monitoring programme for children with T1DM, and of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate efficacy. METHODS: A total of 49 children aged 9-12 with T1DM were randomly assigned to usual care only or to an interactive intervention group combining a website (STAK-D) and a PolarActive activity watch (PAW; Polar Electro (UK) Ltd.), alongside usual care. Participants completed self-report measures on their health, self-efficacy and physical activity at baseline (T0), eight weeks (T1) and six months (T2). They also wore a PAW to measure physical activity for one week at the end of T0, T1 and T2. Intervention participants were interviewed about their experiences at T2. Explanatory variables were examined using multi-level modelling and examination of change scores, 95% confidence intervals and p-values with alpha set at 0.95. Descriptive analysis was undertaken of the 'end-of-study questionnaire'. Qualitative analysis followed a framework approach. RESULTS: Completion rates for all self-report items and objective physical activity data were above 85% for the majority of measures. HbA1c data was obtained for 100% of participants, although complete clinical data was available for 63.3% to 63.5% of participants at each data collection time-point. Recruitment and data collection processes were reported to be acceptable to participants and healthcare professionals. Self-reported sedentary behaviour (-2.28, p=0.04, 95% CI=-4.40, -0.16; p = 0.04; dppc2 = 0.72) and parent-reported physical health of the child (6.15, p=0.01, 95%CI=1.75, 10.55; p = 0.01; dppc2 = 0.75) improved at eight weeks in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: The trial design was feasible and acceptable to participants and healthcare providers. Intervention engagement was low and technical challenges were evident in both online and activity watch elements, although enjoyment was high among users. Reported outcome improvements were observed at 8 weeks but were not sustained. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 48994721 (prospectively registered). Date of registration: 28.09.2016.
  • Physical activity pre- and post-dementia: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Orrell, Martin (2019)
    BACKGROUNDTo inform public health interventions, further investigation is needed to identify: (1) frequency/intensity of everyday physical activity (PA) needed to reduce dementia risk; (2) whether post-diagnosis reduction in PA is associated with cognitive outcomes in people with dementia.METHODSData from 11,391 men and women (aged ≥50) were obtained from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing cohort. Assessments were carried out at baseline (2002-2003) and at biannual follow-ups (2004-2013).RESULTSOlder adults who carried out moderate to vigorous activity at least once per week had a 34%-50% lower risk for cognitive decline and dementia over an 8-10 year follow-up period. From pre- to post-dementia diagnosis, those who decreased PA levels had a larger decrease in immediate recall scores, compared to those who maintained or increased PA levels (analyses were adjusted for changes in physical function).CONCLUSIONPA was associated with cognitive outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Reduction in PA after diagnosis was associated with accelerated cognitive decline and maintaining PA may reduce symptom progression in dementia.
  • A scoping review of behaviour change theories in adults without dementia to adapt and develop the 'PHYT in dementia', a model promoting physical activity in people with dementia

    das Nair, Roshan (2019)
    Introduction Research has established that exercise and physical activity can improve executive functioning, independence and quality of life in people with dementia. A dedicated theory explaining behaviour change in relation to physical activity in people with dementia does not exist. We aimed to develop a theoretical model which can be used to inform effective interventions to promote physical activity in people with dementia. Methods There were five phases: 1. A search of the literature to identify theories which have been used to explain behaviour change in relation to physical activity in adult populations without a diagnosis of dementia; 2. Description of the theories (and sub-theories) and their main constructs; 3. Synthesis of the constructs; 4. Adaptation of the constructs to dementia; 5. Development and explanation of a model for physical activity in people with dementia (the ‘PHYT in dementia’). Results We identified nine theories used to explain behaviour change in relation to physical activity in adult populations without a diagnosis of dementia. Through our synthesis, we identified nine umbrella constructs. We integrated three more dementia-relevant constructs and developed the ‘PHYT in dementia’. The model was explained by providing a practical example of its application. Discussion Based on a scoping review of behaviour change theories in adults without dementia and following adaptation of the constructs from these theories to dementia, we derived a new theoretical model, the ‘PHYT in dementia’, which includes both individual-level and environment-level constructs. The model needs to be tested empirically, which our research team will do in the process evaluation of the Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment (PrAISED 2) study. Results from field-testing will inform refinement of the model.
  • Protocol for the process evaluation of the promoting activity, independence and stability in early dementia and mild cognitive impairment (PrAISED 2) randomised controlled trial

    das Nair, Roshan (2019)
    Introduction: We are conducting a randomised controlled trial (Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment - PrAISED 2) to test the effectiveness of an intervention to promote activity and independence amongst people with mild cognitive impairment and early dementia. A process evaluation is needed to determine how the intervention works. This protocol outlines the rationale, aims, objectives and methods of the process evaluation. <br/>Method(s): The process evaluation will use a mixed-methods design and comprise two studies: An implementation study, examining the process through which PrAISED 2 is delivered, and a study on the mechanisms of impact and context, focussing on the mediating mechanisms that contribute to study outcomes. Integration of separate analyses of quantitative and qualitative data will provide a holistic view of how the PrAISED 2 intervention works. <br/>Conclusion(s): Results from this process evaluation will further the understanding of the factors that can impinge on the success of complex interventions. This will represent invaluable information for researchers undertaking further research around behaviour change among people with cognitive impairment and dementia.<br/>Copyright &#xa9; 2019 Elsevier B.V.
  • WITHDRAWN - Physical activity for improving cognition in older people with mild cognitive impairment

    Orrell, Martin (2018)
    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: A primary objective of the present review is to evaluate and quantify the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in improving cognition in older adults with MCI. A secondary objective comprises the evaluation of the effectiveness of physical activity in improving non cognitive outcomes in older adults with MCI. The present review should aid practitioners in terms of choosing interventions for people with MCI, as well as extending current research.<br/>Copyright &#xa9; 2018 The Cochrane Collaboration.
  • Physical activity

    Pritty, Amy; Hart, Lisa; Goodwin, Evelyn (2012)
  • A randomized controlled trial of the compuLsive Exercise Activity TheraPy (LEAP): A new approach to compulsive exercise in anorexia nervosa

    Arcelus, Jon (2018)
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of the compuLsive Exercise Activity theraPy (LEAP) programme integrated with manualized cognitive behavioral therapy for anorexia nervosa (CBT-AN) compared to CBT-AN alone. METHOD: Seventy-eight adults were randomized to CBT-AN, delivered with or without eight embedded sessions of LEAP, for a total of 34 individual outpatient sessions. Participants were assessed at baseline, the end of the first phase of CBT-AN (which included LEAP), mid-therapy, end of therapy, and at 3 and 6 months follow-up. Linear mixed effects modelling was used for comparing trajectories over time by group in primary outcomes of pathological exercise cognitions and secondary outcomes of exercise frequency, BMI, eating disorder (ED) symptoms, AN stage of change, anxiety/depression, and health related quality of life. RESULTS: There were significant improvements over time in all outcomes. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in primary outcome measures. Fidelity and end-of-treatment participant satisfaction were satisfactory across both conditions. DISCUSSION: CBT-AN and LEAP added to CBT-AN resulted in improved attitudes and beliefs toward exercise and general improvements in BMI and ED psychopathology in people with AN.
  • Within and between day repeatability of the incremental shuttle walking test in patients with thoracic cancer

    Taylor, Vicky (2018)
    Background Breathlessness is common in patients with thoracic cancer but difficult to manage. The Incremental Shuttle Walking Test (ISWT) can help assess new treatments, but its repeatability has not been described in this group. Aim To examine within and between day repeatability of the ISWT in this setting. Methods Patients with incurable thoracic cancer were recruited from outpatient clinics at a University Hospital. Two ISWTs were completed one hour apart on two consecutive days, with the first test for familiarization purposes only. Repeatability of distance walked was examined using Bland and Altman plots and assessed as the single determination (within subject) standard deviation of the difference between tests and its 95% range. Results Forty-one patients participated and completed all tests. Mean (SD) distance walked was 333 (134), 349 (129) and 353 (130) m over the three tests, with the mean difference significantly different from zero between days (16 m, 95% CI 8–24 m, P = 0.043) but not within days (5 m, 95% CI –2 to 12 m, P = 0.47). Within and between day single determination SD and 95% ranges were 30 (−31 to 91) m and 36 (−37 to 109) m respectively. Conclusions These data help inform the design of studies making use of the ISWT and the interpretation of their findings.

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