• A case report of clozapine augmentation with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)

      Broughton, Trevor; Millward, Tim; Geelan, Steve (2012)
      For some patients clozapine represents the only option for controlling the debilitating symptoms of schizophrenia. More tragic are those cases where previously successful treatment with clozapine is withdrawn as a result of blood dyscrasia. In this article, the authors describe such a case. In this instance it was possible to continue treatment with clozapine to good effect by using granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) as an adjunct. This article further explores the decision-making process and the clinical evidence behind this approach. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
    • A survey of the prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by psychiatrists

      Lawton, John D.; Naik, Prakash (1995)
      Questionnaires were sent to 92 doctors asking them aspects of their antidepressant prescribing; 72 returned them. Sixty had prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the previous year. The ratio of SSRIs to all antidepressants prescribed in the previous year exceeded 40% in only eight doctors. Inability to tolerate and failure to respond to established antidepressants were the most common indications for prescribing SSRIs. Side effects and cost were the most common reasons deterring doctors from prescribing SSRIs. SSRIs being new products and doubtS regarding their efficacy were factors that were significantly more likely to deter 'doctors of other grades' than consultants from prescribing them. Fluoxetine and paroxetine were the most frequently prescribed SSRIs.
    • Antidepressants in children and adolescents: Meta-review of efficacy, tolerability and suicidality in acute treatment

      Cortese, Samuele (2020)
      Antidepressants are prescribed for the treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, however there is still controversy about whether they should be used in this population. This meta-review aimed to assess the effects of antidepressants for the acute treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (ADs), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), enuresis, major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents. Efficacy was measured as response to treatment (either as mean overall change in symptoms or as a dichotomous outcome) and tolerability was measured as the proportion of patients discontinuing treatment due to adverse events. Suicidality was measured as suicidal ideation, behavior (including suicide attempts) and completed suicide. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were systematically searched (until 31 October 2019) for existing systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses of double-blind randomized controlled trials. The quality of the included reviews was appraised using AMSTAR-2. Our meta-review included nine systematic reviews/meta-analyses (2 on ADHD; 1 on AD; 2 on ASD; 1 on enuresis; 1 on MDD, 1 on OCD and 1 on PTSD). In terms of efficacy this review found that, compared to placebo: fluoxetine was more efficacious in the treatment of MDD, fluvoxamine and paroxetine were better in the treatment of AD; fluoxetine and sertraline were more efficacious in the treatment of OCD; bupropion and desipramine improved clinician and teacher-rated ADHD symptoms; clomipramine and tianeptine were superior on some of the core symptoms of ASD; and no antidepressant was more efficacious for PTSD and enuresis. With regard to tolerability: imipramine, venlafaxine, and duloxetine were less well tolerated in MDD; no differences were found for any of the antidepressants in the treatment of anxiety disorders (ADs), ADHD, and PTSD; tianeptine and citalopram, but not clomipramine, were less well tolerated in children and adolescents with ASD. For suicidal behavior/ideation, venlafaxine (in MDD) and paroxetine (in AD) were associated with a significantly increased risk; by contrast, sertraline (in AD) was associated with a reduced risk. The majority of included systematic reviews/meta-analyses were rated as being of high or moderate in quality by the AMSTAR-2 critical appraisal tool (one and five, respectively). One included study was of low quality and two were of critically low quality. Compared to placebo, selected antidepressants can be efficacious in the acute treatment of some common psychiatric disorders, although statistically significant differences do not always translate into clinically significant results. Little information was available about tolerability of antidepressants in RCTs of OCD and in the treatment of ADHD, ASD, MDD, and PTSD. There is a paucity of data on suicidal ideation/behavior, but paroxetine may increase the risk of suicidality in the treatment of AD and venlafaxine for MDD. Findings from this review must be considered in light of potential limitations, such as the lack of comparative information about many antidepressants, the short-term outcomes and the quality of the available evidence. © Copyright © 2020 Boaden, Tomlinson, Cortese and Cipriani.
    • Assessing the compliance of accurately documenting medication history in CAMHS - completion of the audit cycle

      Guest, Laura; Lankappa, Sudheer (2021)
      Aims To assess the documentation of medication across all Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) teams in the south region of Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust against a locally agreed protocol. The aim is to ensure accurate and timely documentation of medication history in a standardised way to reduce the risk of medication errors. Method We randomly selected 78 patients across seven teams within CAMHS that were currently prescribed medication as of November 2020. We reviewed each patient to see if medication history had been recorded in the specified section of the trust's patient database PARIS. We then cross referenced this information with the patient notes, clinic letters and prescriptions to review accuracy of information in terms of recording of drug name, dose, frequency, and whether the medication was regular or as required. We compared the data to the results of a previous audit in 2017 which used the same methods. Result Of the 78 patients, 74% (n = 58) had medication recorded in the correct section of PARIS compared to 13% in the 2017 audit. We found that compliance varied between different CAMHS teams ranging from 0% to 100%. Of those with medication history recorded, 86% had all drug names listed correctly, 79% had all drugs listed at the correct dose, 71% had the correct frequency recorded and 81% had whether the medication was regular, or PRN recorded. Conclusion Although we have seen improvement in standardised documentation of medication history since 2017, it remains difficult to rely on this information being up to date and reliable. There was a wide range of compliance in documentation of medication history across different teams, possibly reflecting how effectively the teaching following the previous 2017 audit had been delivered to each team. We have completed more teaching for medical and non-medical prescribers across all localities to highlight the importance of timely and standardised documentation. This is particularly important in CAMHS where the prescribing of medication often remains the responsibility of secondary care, with clinicians regularly prescribing on behalf of colleagues from other teams. Our findings support the move within the Trust towards a system where medication can be both documented and electronically prescribed in the same place (System One).
    • Association between mirtazapine use and serious self-harm in people with depression: an active comparator cohort study using UK electronic health records

      Morriss, Richard K.; Butler, Debbie; Hollis, Chris P. (2022)
      Background Studies report an increased risk of self-harm or suicide in people prescribed mirtazapine compared with other antidepressants.Objectives To compare the risk of serious self-harm in people prescribed mirtazapine versus other antidepressants as second-line treatments.Design and setting Cohort study using anonymised English primary care electronic health records, hospital admission data and mortality data with study window 1 January 2005 to 30 November 2018.Participants 24 516 people diagnosed with depression, aged 18–99 years, initially prescribed a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and then prescribed mirtazapine, a different SSRI, amitriptyline or venlafaxine.Main outcome measures Hospitalisation or death due to deliberate self-harm. Age–sex standardised rates were calculated and survival analyses were performed using inverse probability of treatment weighting to account for baseline covariates.Results Standardised rates of serious self-harm ranged from 3.8/1000 person-years (amitriptyline) to 14.1/1000 person-years (mirtazapine). After weighting, the risk of serious self-harm did not differ significantly between the mirtazapine group and the SSRI or venlafaxine groups (HRs (95% CI) 1.18 (0.84 to 1.65) and 0.85 (0.51 to 1.41) respectively). The risk was significantly higher in the mirtazapine than the amitriptyline group (3.04 (1.36 to 6.79)) but was attenuated after adjusting for dose.Conclusions There was no evidence for a difference in risk between mirtazapine and SSRIs or venlafaxine after accounting for baseline characteristics. The higher risk in the mirtazapine versus the amitriptyline group might reflect residual confounding if amitriptyline is avoided in people considered at risk of self-harm.Clinical implications Addressing baseline risk factors and careful monitoring might improve outcomes for people at risk of serious self-harm.No data are available. Data used in the study were provided under licence by CPRD (www.cprd.com) and cannot be shared by the authors. All code lists and the statistical code (in the form of Stata do-files) used to prepare and analyse the data are available on Zenodo.org (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4779024).
    • Audit on clozapine dose and plasma level correlation for patients with chronic treatment-resistant psychosis

      Macnamara, Olivia; Lawton, John D.; Lankappa, Sudheer (2021)
      Aims Clozapine is associated with a risk of severe adverse events for which there are current monitoring systems are in place; however, there are no established regimens for monitoring of clozapine plasma levels. Recent Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) guidance advises clozapine levels should be monitored in certain clinical situations where toxicity may be suspected. This audit aimed to evaluate current practice of clozapine level monitoring within one Local Mental Health Team (LMHT). Method Electronic (RiO) records of 41 patients (33 male, 8 female; aged from 27 to 76 years; mean age 45 years) registered to the ZTAS system within the Nottingham City Central LMHT were reviewed. 46% had been on clozapine for over 16 years. 73.3% of patients were within clusters 12 and 13; 25.4% of patients were in cluster 11, with one patient in cluster 8. Dates of clozapine plasma level tests for each patient between 2006 and 2020 were found on the electronic NoTIS system, along with clozapine, norclozapine and total clozapine levels. Concurrent clozapine dose and regimens were obtained from pharmacy records from 2018 onwards. Result 273 clozapine plasma levels were conducted between 2006 and 2020. The average interval between levels taken was 10 months, 2 weeks but had a wide range, the shortest interval being 2 days, the longest being 13 years. 88 levels taken were >600 ug/L, suggesting increased toxicity risk. 108 levels were <350 ug/L, suggesting possible sub-optimal dosing or non-compliance. Statistical tests on correlation coefficient, although statistically non-significant (R = 0.37), showed a positive trend between total clozapine dose and the plasma level between all 3 parameters (i.e. clozapine, norclozapine and total clozapine). Conclusion There does not appear to be any routine plasma clozapine level monitoring throughout the LMHT with an average interval between tests of 10 months. There was a non-significant but positive trend between total daily dose of clozapine and clozapine level. 32% of clozapine levels returned were higher than the recommended level. We would recommend as suggested in the guidelines from MHRA, clozapine plasma levels should be monitored in certain clinical situations with increased toxicity risk. Trough levels should be taken with records of time of previous dose taken. Limitations of this study included a small sample size (41 patients) with data collection reliant on electronic systems. It was unclear if these results represent trough levels, making values difficult to interpret. Multifactorial impact on clozapine metabolism causes wide patient variability in plasma levels.
    • BAP Position Statement: Off-label prescribing of psychotropic medication to children and adolescents

      Hollis, Chris P. (2016)
      The off-label use of medicines for children and adolescents remains a common and important issue for prescribing practice across child and adolescent psychiatry, paediatrics and primary care. This editorial focusses on psychotropic drug treatment, which plays an essential part in the comprehensive management of a range of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Despite a growing evidence base for drug treatment in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, much psychotropic medication continues to be prescribed off-label (i.e. outside the limits of the marketing authorisation or product license). The reasons for and implications of off-label prescribing, including the potential clinical benefits/risks and medico-legal implications, are often poorly understood by both patients and prescribers. An important unintended consequence of the uncertainties and confusion surrounding the status of off-label prescribing for children and adolescents may be that effective drug treatments are being withheld or underused. This BAP Position Statement aims to clarify these issues, challenge some of the myths surrounding off-label prescribing for children and adolescents and offer practical guidance for prescribers. Copyright © The Author(s) 2016.
    • A clinical audit to investigate polypharmacy and interactions in inpatients in an old age psychiatric ward

      Mokashi, Nisha (2021)
      Aims To identify any problematic polypharmacy in the patient records of those staying in Cherry Ward, an old age psychiatric unit at Highbury Hospital, Nottingham in the calendar year 2018. Background Multi-morbidity is defined as more than one long-term medical condition in a single individual and is a factor that is closely associated with polypharmacy, the use of multiple medications concurrently. Appropriate and Problematic are the two classifications of polypharmacy outlined by the King's Fund report, the first describing optimised evidenced-based pharmacological management of comorbidities and the latter to label prescribed medications whose use is not in the best interests of the patient. The risk of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions is increased with polypharmacy, and frail elderly patients are particularly at risk of the side-effects of psychotropic medications used in the management of mental health disorders. Guidelines highlight this group as a key party to be identified when searching for at-risk people. Method The electronic records of those admitted and discharged from Cherry Ward in 2018 were reviewed in the period spanning January to May 2019, and the first forty-three patients were analysed in Microsoft Excel using criteria based on the King's fund report and the Medscape and BNF (British National Formulary) drug interaction tools. The Medscape drug interaction checker was used for initial screening; the complete medication list for each patient was entered into it and the number of interactions was displayed with advice on severity. If necessary, the individual interactions for each specific medication could also be cross-referenced in the BNF using the extensive lists provided for each drug. These are also graded from mild to severe. Result On discharge, 69.7% (thirty patients) met the criteria for being at higher risk of polypharmacy. One patient became at higher risk of polypharmacy during admission, and another two stepped down from meeting the criteria on admission but not on discharge. Thirty-one of the forty-three patients had at least one interaction recorded; 18.6% (eight patients) had at least one potentially severe interaction. Conclusion A substantial proportion of patients in Cherry ward in 2018 were at a higher risk of polypharmacy, reflecting current practice as outlined in the King's Fund report. Problematic polypharmacy is common among older patients hospitalised with psychiatric illness. Recommendations include use of an automated electronic system to investigate and flag up problematic polypharmacy and severe medication interactions.
    • Compliance to completion of sodium valproate annual risk acknowledgement form among women of child-bearing age prescribed sodium valproate in the intellectual disability (ID) services of an NHS trust

      Ohize, Victor; Bagalkote, Deval (2021)
      Aims To determine the proportion of women of child-bearing age prescribed SV who have the SV ARF filled. Background In 2018, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) gave guidance regarding Sodium Valproate (SV) prescription. It acknowledged the significant risk of birth defects and developmental disorders in women of child-bearing age prescribed SV. Consequently, the MHRA recommendation is that SV must not be used in females of child-bearing age unless: conditions of pregnancy prevention programme are met; other treatments are ineffective or not tolerated; and evidence of discussion of risks with patient or carer and annual review of the risks are documented. The evidences of the above criteria are expected to be documented in an Annual Risk Acknowledgement Form (ARF). Method Retrospective study involving systematic search of Trust database to identify women with ID, aged 16–50 years prescribed SV from 2018 to 2019. Result 18 of 28 patients had ARF filled, a 64% compliance. The main indications for SV prescription were epilepsy; challenging behaviour; and mood stabilization. The distribution showed neurology and psychiatrist led prescription initiation equally distributed at 50%. The ARF compliance was higher in the neurology group (93%) compared to 36% in psychiatrist group. A review across the 5 ID teams (A,B,C,D and E) of the trust shows variable compliance to ARF compliance (17%,81%,100%,60%,0% respectively) with teams having higher proportion of neurology led SV prescription initiation also having higher proportion of ARF completion compliance (0%,55%,80%,80%,0% respectively). Conclusion Conclusion / Recommendation ARF compliance is below standard at 64%. Despite the SV prescription being equally distributed between neurology led and psychiatry led, patients whose prescription of SV is neurology led (prescription indication as epilepsy) had better ARF compliance outcome (93%) compared with patients whose prescription is psychiatry led (prescription indication as challenging behaviour or mood stabilization) with 36% ARF compliance. Organizational difference with dedicated epilepsy nurse in the ID service means patients with epilepsy had reviews of medication and compliance to MHRA guidance in completing the ARF. There is need to increase doctors’ awareness to review ARF status during patients’ appointment. Information Technology design to flag up out of date ARF may be helpful. The review of ARF may also flag up consideration of other alternatives: behavioural, psychological, functional and environmental interventions as well as alternative medications like Risperidone for challenging behaviours and other mood stabilizing options. This will minimize SV prescription, which is the original goal of the MHRA guidance.
    • Consensus workshops on the development of an ADHD medication management protocol using QbTest: developing a clinical trial protocol with multidisciplinary stakeholders

      Hall, Charlotte L.; Brown, Susan S.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Brown, Nikki; Williams, Laura; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris P.; Groom, Madeleine J. (2019)
      BACKGROUNDThe study design and protocol that underpin a randomised controlled trial (RCT) are critical for the ultimate success of the trial. Although RCTs are considered the gold standard for research, there are multiple threats to their validity such as participant recruitment and retention, identifying a meaningful change, and non-adherence to the protocol. For clinical RCTs, involving patients and clinicians in protocol design provides the opportunity to develop research protocols that are meaningful to their target audience and may help overcome some of the inherent threats in conducting RCTs. However, the majority of protocols do not describe the methodology underpinning their development, limiting the amount of learned experience shared between research groups.METHODWith the purpose of reporting a collaborative approach towards developing a protocol, we present the findings from three sequential workshops that were conducted with the aim of developing a protocol to investigate the feasibility of adding a computerised test of attention, impulsivity and activity (QbTest) to medication management of children and young people with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Based on previous qualitative interviews with clinicians and families, each workshop prioritised topics for focused discussion. Information from the workshops was fed back to the participants for reflection in advance of the next workshop.RESULTSThe workshops involved 21 multi-disciplinary ADHD experts, including clinicians, patient and public involvement (PPI) members, parents of young people with ADHD and researchers. The consensus workshops addressed key research issues such as: the most relevant outcome measures/ resource drivers; methods and time points for data collection; and the clinical protocol for utilising the QbTest, including when best to use this within the medication management process. The resulting protocol details a feasibility RCT design describing these factors.CONCLUSIONProtocols which are co-developed may help overcome some of the risks associated with RCT completion (e.g. recruitment, retention, protocol adherence) and help prioritise outcomes of greater relevance to the populations under study. The methodology has potential value for researchers and organisations developing clinical guidelines, and offers insights into the valuable impact of PPI upon trial design.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicaltrials.gov NCT03368573, 11th December 2017 (retrospectively registered).
    • Critical thinking offers a more person-centred approach to drug treatments

      Middleton, Hugh (2014)
      Background: The science supporting use of antipsychotic agents, antidepressants and mood stabilizers is not noncontroversial. There are criticisms of the honesty with which trial data are presented, allegations of common interest between academics and commercial sponsors and concerns about other ways in which products have been promoted. These justify critical reappraisal of the bases upon which psycho-pharmaceuticals have acquired a reputation as effective therapies. Objectives: Summarize two recent books (1,2). To use their interpretations of such data as the basis of a more relational, person-centred approach to the use of psychotropic medication. Methods: The Myth of the Chemical Cure asks a number of specific questions of the science behind antipsychotic agents, antidepressants and mood stabilizers which test whether or not these agents fulfill what might expected of a therapeutic agent. The Bitterest Pill provides an account of the way in which the notion of psychosis as "correctable chemical abnormality" has been developed. Findings: A critical reading of scientific and clinical trials findings suggests that the notion of psycho-pharmaceuticals as targeted therapeutic agents correcting abnormalities of brain chemistry over-interprets available knowledge. An historical perspective can now look back and recognize that our understanding of "antipsychotic" agents has been shaped by commercial interests (3). Conclusions: Psychopharmacology's therapeutic effects might be better understood as a complex processes including the subjective experiences psycho-active agents induce, expectancy and the affirming effect of receiving a prescription. Ways in which commercial interests exploit these have to recognized if unwanted consequences are to be minimized.
    • Current role of melatonin in pediatric neurology: Clinical recommendations

      Cortese, Samuele (2015)
      BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Melatonin, an indoleamine secreted by the pineal gland, plays a key role in regulating circadian rhythm. It has chronobiotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties. METHODS: A conference in Rome in 2014 aimed to establish consensus on the roles of melatonin in children and on treatment guidelines. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The best evidence for efficacy is in sleep onset insomnia and delayed sleep phase syndrome. It is most effective when administered 3-5 h before physiological dim light melatonin onset. There is no evidence that extended-release melatonin confers advantage over immediate release. Many children with developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disability have sleep disturbance and can benefit from melatonin treatment. Melatonin decreases sleep onset latency and increases total sleep time but does not decrease night awakenings. Decreased CYP 1A2 activity, genetically determined or from concomitant medication, can slow metabolism, with loss of variation in melatonin level and loss of effect. Decreasing the dose can remedy this. Animal work and limited human data suggest that melatonin does not exacerbate seizures and might decrease them. Melatonin has been used successfully in treating headache. Animal work has confirmed a neuroprotective effect of melatonin, suggesting a role in minimising neuronal damage from birth asphyxia; results from human studies are awaited. Melatonin can also be of value in the performance of sleep EEGs and as sedation for brainstem auditory evoked potential assessments. No serious adverse effects of melatonin in humans have been identified.Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Do Asian patients require only half of the clozapine dose prescribed for caucasians? A critical overview

      Rajkumar, Anto P. (2020)
      Since 1997, studies have found that Asians need lower clozapine doses than Caucasians. Caucasians with average clozapine metabolism may need from 300 to 600 mg/day to reach the therapeutic range (350 ng/ml). Thus, serum clozapine concentration-to-dose (C/D) ratios typically range between 0.60 (male smokers) and 1.20 (female non-smokers). A 2019 systematic review of clozapine levels demonstrated weighted mean C/D ratios of 1.57 in 876 East Asians and 1.07 in 1147 Caucasians (<i>P</i> <.001). In Asian countries, average clozapine doses are lower than 300 mg/day. After sex and smoking stratification in 5 Asian samples with clozapine concentrations, the clozapine dose required to reach 350 ng/ml in female non-smokers ranged from 145 to 189 mg/day and in male smokers, from 259 to 294 mg/day. Thus, in Asian patients with average metabolism (with no inducers other than smoking, with no inhibitors, and in the absence of extreme obesity), the dose needed for clinical response may range between 150 mg/day for female non-smokers to 300 mg/day for male smokers. Clozapine levels may help personalize dosing in clozapine poor metabolizers (PMs) and ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs). Asian PMs may need very low doses (50-150 mg/day) to obtain therapeutic concentrations. About 10&#37; (range 2-13&#37;) of Asians are genetic PM cases. Other PMs are patients taking CYP1A2 inhibitors such as fluvoxamine, oral contraceptives, and valproate. Temporary clozapine PM status may occur during severe systemic infections/inflammations with fever and C-reactive protein (CRP) elevations. Asian UMs include patients taking potent inducers such as phenytoin, and rarely, valproate.
    • Do clinical psychologists have a role in clients' use of psychotropic medication? A mixed methods investigation exploring current forms of involvement

      Aston, Amy; Smith, Sharron; Tickle, Anna C. (2020)
      Objectives: This study aimed to explore whether clinical psychologists in the United Kingdom (UK) have a role with their clients’ psychotropic medication by exploring forms of involvement undertaken, and decision‐making behind involvement. Design: A mixed methods design was employed; 147 clinical psychologists took part in an online survey, and 11 respondents were interviewed, selected using intensity sampling. Methods: Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyse the quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Results: All respondents reported having some role with their clients’ psychotropic medication. A thematic map diagram was created to capture the process of how clinical psychologists choose to become involved. Conclusions: Consensus was reached in that clinical psychologists do have a role with their clients’ psychotropic medication, although this varies by clinician and takes on many forms. In the light of the changing role, professional guidance would help to promote clarity and consistency.
    • Evaluation of the effectiveness and acceptability of intramuscular clozapine injection: illustrative case series

      Holmes, Nikki (2020)
      AIMS AND METHOD: A series of eleven patients prescribed intramuscular clozapine at five UK sites is presented. Using routinely collected clinical data, we describe the use, efficacy and safety of this treatment modality. RESULTS: We administered 188 doses of intramuscular clozapine to eight patients. The remaining three patients accepted oral medication. With the exception of minor injection site pain and nodules, side-effects were as expected with oral clozapine, and there were no serious untoward events. Nine patients were successfully established on oral clozapine with significant improvement in their clinical presentations. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although a novel formulation in the UK, we have shown that intramuscular clozapine can be used safely and effectively when the oral route is initially refused.
    • Evaluation of the use of intramuscular clozapine

      Holmes, Nikki (2019)
      Poster from the Trent Study Day 2019
    • Evaluation of the use of intramuscular clozapine

      Holmes, Nikki (2019)
      Use of clozapine via the intramuscular route (IM) has recently started at the Hospital. It was felt important to review current use alongside the literature and guidance from elsewhere to inform content in the trust clozapine guideline and facilitate safe and effective use of this treatment strategy. There is little information regarding IM clozapine in the literature (McLean and Juckes, 2001; Kasinathan and Mastroianni, 2007). Some services have guidelines (South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, 2016; Southern Health NHS Foundation Trust, 2016).