• The research process: A beginner's guide

      Clark, John R. (1997)
      The introduction of evidence-based health care and the importance of library services in supporting this trend mean that librarians should at the very least understand the research process. The research process is often misunderstood and feared. This paper explains the research process step by step, giving examples. The major research designs, experimental, quasi-experimental, survey and action research are described. This paper is deliberately practical rather than academically focused. Its structure could be used to structure a small-scale research project, with the help of the literature in the annotated bibliography.
    • Integrating research into practice: A model for evidence based care through ward based learning

      Robinson, David K.; Whyte, Lawrence (1997)
      This article describes how the potential impact of research findings on practice are limited because there is no formal method of application. In view of this a working group has examined ways in which to overcome the problem and subsequently developed a ward based distance learning package to assist in developing staff skills. This will ultimately influence patient healthcare and outcome by examining appropriate research evidence. Accredited by Sheffield Hallam University, the package has implications for all registered nurses in all nursing contexts.
    • Evidence-based care through clinical practice

      Robinson, David K.; Whyte, Lawrence (1997)
      This article describes how a working group examined ways to overcome difficulties with applying research findings to clinical practice. The group developed a ward-based distance learning package to assist in developing staff skills and ultimately enhance patient health care. The package has implications for all registered nurses in all nursing contexts.
    • Auditing health promotion activities in primary health care teams: An analysis of activity and suggestions for indicators of service delivery

      Phair, Lesley; Banyard, Philip (1999)
      An audit of health promotion activity by primary health care teams in North Nottinghamshire was conducted in 1996/7 which collected quantitative data on the health promotion activity and qualitative data on examples of good practice. This paper reports the quantitative findings of 179 health promotion events. The analysis revealed information about the style, target group and topic of the health promotion events as well as information about the partnerships with outside agencies, and the level of co-operation between health workers. Measures of service delivery are suggested which can help develop targets for a planned and appropriate delivery of health promotion.
    • Information sources for specialist nurses

      Baldwin, Laurence (2002)
      Nurses working in highly specialised areas face a problem with obtaining up-to-date information which is relevant to their practice, particularly when that practice spans different areas of interest. This is a problem common to many practice areas, though the survey that this article describes covers child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) nursing.
    • Significance-testing the validity of idiographic methods: A little derangement goes a long way

      Evans, Chris (2002)
      We present an experimental design for validating idiographic data and the mathematical basis for subjecting this to statistical hypothesis testing. The method involves matching descriptions of four or more objects to the people from which they arose. If four or more can be matched, this is unlikely (p < 0.05) to have arisen by chance alone and the null hypothesis that the data communicate no information can be rejected. This criterion score of 4 is sufficient for statistical significance regardless of the total number of objects on which matching was attempted. The mathematics of this somewhat counterintuitive result is given, and we argue that this method is of value in validating idiographic data. Its relationship with the 'method of mismatched cases' is discussed.
    • Is empirical research compatible with clinical practice?

      Evans, Chris (2002)
      This paper explores the provocative question in the title through the authors' experiences of working within a couple psychotherapy service. In it we hope to chart how it became possible to undertake empirical research in a clinical setting. Underlying the question we found a number of others. For example, when and how does empirical research threaten or enhance couples' therapies? Is empirical research a toxic introject, an idealized object and/or a real cultural, developmental experience for a clinical service? The process of change described in this paper involved conflict and took time to develop. We hope to demonstrate that what was achieved was done without detriment to the quality of the service offered and was not at the expense of those who used it. Our view is that the careful engagement we describe is most likely to have had a beneficial impact on both.
    • Practice-based evidence: Benchmarking NHS primary care counselling services at national and local levels

      Evans, Chris (2003)
      There are a number of problems for evidence-based practice (EBP) including limited generalizability of efficacy research results, the consequent lack of confidence in the relevance of such research, and the conceptual distance of most practitioners from the research process. The result is that EBP, although sound in principle, often fails to achieve its aim of improving practice. Practice-based evidence (PBE) provides a complementary bridge for the gap between research and practice to offset some of these problems, promoting collaboration between mental health services and academic institutions. This paper presents the initial results of such a collaboration via three phases: (1) the development of a referential database for primary care counselling services, (2) 'practitioner-friendly' feedback on grouped data to services, and (3) the combination of the two to build an evidence base for work with ethnic minorities-an area in which research trials are not well adapted to provide much evidence. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wily Sons, Ltd.
    • The evolution of a local R&D strategy: The experience of a service in the UK National Health Service (NHS)

      Rogers, David (2004)
      Increasing concern about the state of health-related research in the UK in the 80s and early 90s, led to an influential parliamentary review. The consequence of this was to strengthen health research through a programme that was fully integrated into the management structure of the NHS. No country had ever attempted such an ambitious approach (Black, 1997). In 1994 a far-reaching review, recommended further, revolutionary changes to the management of R&D in the UK National Health Service (Culyer, 1994). Many of these were implemented in 1997 with the result that every UK health service at regional and local level has developed an infrastructure, and management arrangements for R&D activity. In most local areas, hospitals with significant involvement in R&D have been eligible to bid to the UK Department of Health for NHS R&D Support funds. In Nottingham, three Hospital Trusts and a community based service made bids to the Department of Health and received grants to support R&D. This paper focuses on one of the hospital Trusts - the mental health service in Nottingham. Our experience will be of particular interest as the first bid that the mental health service made was spectacularly unsuccessful. The organisation was forced to consider dis-investment in its existing research infrastructure and a potential negative impact on the provision of patient care. This led to a wide-ranging consultation and evaluation of research and research-related activity. A range of approaches and tools were deployed to develop the strategy and to ensure its successful implementation and evolution. The strategy reflected a balanced approach, taking into account historical and organisational research strengths, while recognising the need to build capacity and capability, enhance foresight capability and strengthen the knowledge base. The ability to contribute to, and influence policy and practice has been a key driver of the strategy. The result was a successful bid and the evolution of an R&D strategy that has been flexible in its response to policy changes, changing local circumstances and wider socio-economic trends and technical innovations. Furthermore, R&D performance, measured through outputs, impacts and income, has continually improved and increased.
    • Does the non-randomized controlled study have a place in the systematic review? A pilot study

      Ferriter, Michael; Huband, Nick (2005)
      Background: A major issue in any systematic review is deciding which trials or studies to include and which to exclude. The Cochrane Collaboration and similar respected organizations have traditionally viewed the randomized trial (RCT) as the only acceptable evidence on treatment outcome. However, many systematic reviews are indeterminate because they include insufficient RCTs whilst they reject large numbers of non-randomized controlled studies. This is particularly true in forensic mental health, a domain where RCT methodology can be problematic. Systematic reviews could become more informative if reviewers knew when, and under what circumstances, non-randomized designs are acceptable for inclusion alongside RCTs.; Method: This pilot study explores whether good-quality, controlled, non-randomized studies can be reliable surrogates for RCTs. We examined two published reviews from the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group. We compared outcomes between (a) randomized trials (that had been included) and non-randomized studies (that had been excluded), and (b) between high- and low-quality studies using an established quality checklist.; Results: In the first review, effect scores were similar for randomized and non-randomized studies and relatively insensitive to study quality. In the second review, the treatment effect was considerably lower for the RCT group - here, however, studies of high-quality showed much smaller effect scores than those of low-quality on two separate outcomes.; Conclusions: Non-randomized controlled studies of high quality can produce outcomes that approximate to those found in RCTs. Trial quality may have a greater impact on treatment effect size than randomization alone, suggesting that randomization should not be seen as a reliable proxy for overall quality. The problems and issues still to be resolved are discussed with recommendations for future research.;
    • Editorial collective

      Davies, Steffan; Manning, Nick (2005)
    • Single case study and evidence-based practice

      Phillips, C. (2005)
      With the current emphasis upon evidence-based medicine in statutory healthcare provision in the UK, mental health nursing is challenged to justify its approaches. Psychological theories, once taken for granted in mental health nursing, are now being challenged by new definitions of evidence. In this paper the authors focus upon the use of individual case study. The discussion questions the validity of applying the hierarchies of evidence proposed by evidence-based medicine to mental health nursing theory and practice. The role of case study as the prime source of evidence is argued and is justified in mental health nursing research and practice. © 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    • 2400 Day in the life

      Dinsdale, Paul (2005)
      With five years' experience in the research world, Sue Jaycock tells Paul Dinsdale how she now helps others to follow in her footsteps.
    • Research matters

      Evans, Chris (2007)
      Chris Evans makes a plea for the creativities of both genders and both sexes in psychological therapy research...
    • Making CORE-OM data work for you and your service: A primary care psychology and counselling team's experience of routine outcome measurement

      Evans, Chris (2007)
      We describe benefits of introducing routine outcome measurement (ROM) in primary care services. Factors facilitating culture change are discussed and the importance of resources and data ownership noted.
    • Questioning the community: A guide to research for therapeutic community members: Part one: The bare bones of a research project

      Evans, Chris (2007)
      In what is to become a regular column in the TC journal, we want to devote some time and space to 'de-mystifying' the practice of research: methods and methodologies (why one is not the other, and vice versa); practical applications of research; interpretations and implementations of 'evidence-based practice'; as well as notes from our own experiences as researchers. In this issue, we will open up the debate with a quick introduction to some of the central issues in conducting research in general, and try to define some of the more difficult terms and concepts used by researchers. © The Author(s).
    • Using the internet to conduct research relevant to forensic practice

      Oddie, Sharon (2007)
      Internet-mediated research is becoming an increasingly viable option for forensic researchers, allowing some of the limitations of traditional approaches to be overcome. Many advantages are evident in this approach, such as the ability to access large, diverse samples and specialist groups. However, there are limitations and ethical issues that researchers need to be aware of. This paper provides an overview of internet-mediated research for forensic researchers and practitioners, and highlights some of the ways in which this approach can be used to undertake research relevant to forensic practice. Some examples of research undertaken using this approach are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • The forensic mental health tribes: Identifying a research community

      Maggs, Adele; Chilvers, Clair (2008)
      This paper considers the gender, age, and professional groupings of the forensic mental health research community in the United Kingdom, as identified by applications during the 12-year life (1996-2007) of the Department of Health Forensic Mental Health RD Programme. The results indicate that psychiatry no longer has an almost monopolistic position in pursuing research in this area. Nevertheless, psychiatrists retain a dominant position. In contrast, psychologists, while now having a massive presence in this area, seem to do much less well proportionally in obtaining grants. Other professional groupings now have a presence in this field, perhaps unimaginable even a decade ago. Discipline rather than gender is the crucial variable in identifying the likelihood of being a successful applicant. However, females are more likely to be in the role of co-investigator than principal investigator. Finally, the age distribution of this research community looks healthy and there is no imminent 'retirement problem' which could adversely affect its development. Placing the findings within a wider context, the future is less clear. There are important structural issues which indicate the fragility of the forensic mental health research community. The authors conclude that, although modest in its aims and scope, this study provides a basis for considering the future of forensic mental health research and its community of researchers.
    • Research matters

      Evans, Chris (2008)
      Chris Evans debates the merits of putting patients first in research.