Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Exploring the influence of postnatal depression on neonatal care practices among mothers in Western Kenya: A qualitative study.Background: Postnatal depression (PND) is associated with adverse infant neurodevelopmental outcomes. Evidence is limited on how PND influences neonatal (<28 days old) outcomes in low- and middle-income countries, such as Kenya, which bear the global burden of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To explore how PND influences neonatal feeding and care practices among women in the early postnatal period in rural Western Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted at 2-weeks postpartum among mothers of newborn infants identified <72 h old from the postnatal wards and clinics across five health facilities in Kisumu County of Western Kenya. They were all screened for features suggestive of postnatal depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Results: Twenty-four mothers were interviewed, 13 of whom had features suggestive of PND. All mothers experienced health or socio-economic adversities in the perinatal period, including traumatic deliveries, financial constraints, and challenging relationships with partners/other family members. Feeding difficulties due to perceived insufficient breastmilk were a particular challenge for mothers with features of PND, who were more likely to introduce complementary feeds. Maternal health-seeking decisions were influenced by high financial cost, long waiting times and poor interactions with health care providers that induced stress and fear among mothers. Maternal caregiving capacity was influenced by her ability to juggle other household duties, which was difficult for mothers with features suggestive of PND. Support from friends and relatives positively impacted maternal mood and caregiving ability. Conclusion: Mothers experienced many stress-inducing events in the perinatal period which potentially exacerbated features of PND in the immediate postnatal period. Women with features of PND were particularly vulnerable to these stressors that influenced infant caregiving practices. Addressing the socio-economic challenges and health system gaps that include scale up of compassionate and respectful care for women during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as early screening and intervention of PND, through enhanced referral pathways between health facilities and community support structures, could mitigate against the impact of PND on neonatal caregiving.
Use of evidence based practices to improve survival without severe morbidity for very preterm infants: results from the EPICE population based cohort.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the implementation of four high evidence practices for the care of very preterm infants to assess their use and impact in routine clinical practice and whether they constitute a driver for reducing mortality and neonatal morbidity. DESIGN: Prospective multinational population based observational study. SETTING: 19 regions from 11 European countries covering 850 000 annual births participating in the EPICE (Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe for very preterm births) project. PARTICIPANTS: 7336 infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks' gestation in 2011/12 without serious congenital anomalies and surviving to neonatal admission. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Combined use of four evidence based practices for infants born before 28 weeks' gestation using an "all or none" approach: delivery in a maternity unit with appropriate level of neonatal care; administration of antenatal corticosteroids; prevention of hypothermia (temperature on admission to neonatal unit >/=36 degrees C); surfactant used within two hours of birth or early nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Infant outcomes were in-hospital mortality, severe neonatal morbidity at discharge, and a composite measure of death or severe morbidity, or both. We modelled associations using risk ratios, with propensity score weighting to account for potential confounding bias. Analyses were adjusted for clustering within delivery hospital. RESULTS: Only 58.3% (n=4275) of infants received all evidence based practices for which they were eligible. Infants with low gestational age, growth restriction, low Apgar scores, and who were born on the day of maternal admission to hospital were less likely to receive evidence based care. After adjustment, evidence based care was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (risk ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.87) and in-hospital mortality or severe morbidity, or both (0.82, 0.73 to 0.92), corresponding to an estimated 18% decrease in all deaths without an increase in severe morbidity if these interventions had been provided to all infants. CONCLUSIONS: More comprehensive use of evidence based practices in perinatal medicine could result in considerable gains for very preterm infants, in terms of increased survival without severe morbidity.