Recent Submissions

  • Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of COVID-19: The PAN-COVID study

    Rajeswary, Jyothi Mrs (European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 2022-09)
    Objective To assess perinatal outcomes for pregnancies affected by suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods Prospective, web-based registry. Pregnant women were invited to participate if they had suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 1st January 2020 and 31st March 2021 to assess the impact of infection on maternal and perinatal outcomes including miscarriage, stillbirth, fetal growth restriction, pre-term birth and transmission to the infant. Results Between April 2020 and March 2021, the study recruited 8239 participants who had suspected or confirmed SARs-CoV-2 infection episodes in pregnancy between January 2020 and March 2021. Maternal death affected 14/8197 (0.2%) participants, 176/8187 (2.2%) of participants required ventilatory support. Pre-eclampsia affected 389/8189 (4.8%) participants, eclampsia was reported in 40/ 8024 (0.5%) of all participants. Stillbirth affected 35/8187 (0.4 %) participants. In participants delivering within 2 weeks of delivery 21/2686 (0.8 %) were affected by stillbirth compared with 8/4596 (0.2 %) delivering ≥ 2 weeks after infection (95 % CI 0.3–1.0). SGA affected 744/7696 (9.3 %) of livebirths, FGR affected 360/8175 (4.4 %) of all pregnancies. Pre-term birth occurred in 922/8066 (11.5%), the majority of these were indicated pre-term births, 220/7987 (2.8%) participants experienced spontaneous pre-term births. Early neonatal deaths affected 11/8050 livebirths. Of all neonates, 80/7993 (1.0%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions Infection was associated with indicated pre-term birth, most commonly for fetal compromise. The overall proportions of women affected by SGA and FGR were not higher than expected, however there was the proportion affected by stillbirth in participants delivering within 2 weeks of infection was significantly higher than those delivering ≥ 2 weeks after infection. We suggest that clinicians’ threshold for delivery should be low if there are concerns with fetal movements or fetal heart rate monitoring in the time around infection. The proportion affected by pre-eclampsia amongst participants was not higher than would be expected, although we report a higher than expected proportion affected by eclampsia. There appears to be no effect on birthweight or congenital malformations in women affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and neonatal infection is uncommon. This study reflects a population with a range of infection severity for SARS-COV-2 in pregnancy, generalisable to whole obstetric populations.
  • 80 The cost of smoking in pregnancy - A retrospective study. Source

    Hills, A; Allison, C (European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, 2022-03)
    Introduction and study aims: The UK Department of Health aims to reduce smoking at time of delivery (SATOD) to below 6% by 2022. Sherwood Forest Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (SFHFT) had a SATOD of 16.5% in 2019-2020. The aim was to demonstrate how smoking continues to affect patients, to motivate and engage staff in smoking cessation strategies. Methods: Retrospective study of 25 non-smokers’ and 25 smokers’ who had delivered at SFHFT in the first quarter of 2020, comparing antenatal contacts and pregnancy-related complications. Inclusion criteria were maternal age (18 - 40 years) and BMI (18 - 25). Data was collected from Orion (electronic maternity pathway). The two groups were then compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The smoking group were 9 times less likely to attend appointments and had an average of 5.28 growth scans (compared to non-smokers 0.96 scans). They were 3 times more likely to have an antenatal complication - small for gestation age (SGA) [RR 9], fetal growth restriction (FGR) [RR 10], low Papp-A, antepartum haemorrhage, preterm birth, oligohydramnios and reduced fetal movements. Smokers were more likely to be induced for SGA/FGR (RR 5.5), have a baby below the 10th centile (RR3) and develop intrapartum complications (RR 1.45). Smokers were 3.6 times less likely to breast feed. All findings were clinically significant (p≤0.05). The cost of continued smoking in pregnancy for SFHFT is £1,731,560 per year. Conclusion: Despite increased surveillance in SATOD pregnancies, the short and long term consequences for these women and their babies are significant. It has previously been demonstrated that babies born with low birth weights are at increased risk of adult diseases, hence the true financial burden is therefore far greater and the continued need to decrease SATOD is clear.
  • Episiotomy and Initiation of Human Milk Feeds: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Servante, Juliette (Breastfeeding Medicine, 2021-05)
    Objective: To investigate the association, in the United Kingdom, between having an episiotomy during childbirth and giving human milk by any modality as an infant's first feed. We also identified maternal demographic factors and perinatal experiences associated with increased chance of the infant's first feed being human milk. Study Design: Retrospective observational cohort study at two large maternity units within district general hospitals in the United Kingdom. Population: Mothers giving birth vaginally to singleton babies at ≥34 weeks and ≥1,800 g. Methods and Main Outcome Measures: Deidentified data from hospital records were analyzed. The odds ratio (OR) of a mother giving human milk for an infant's first feed after episiotomy versus no episiotomy was calculated using a chi-squared test. Logistic regression was used to investigate and then control for confounders known to affect breastfeeding. Results: A total of 13,906 women met the inclusion criteria (2,113 had had an episiotomy and 11,793 had not). Human milk was given as a first feed to 70% of infants in the study population. Women whose infants received their first feed as human milk were on average older, had lower body mass index, lived in an area of less socioeconomic deprivation, and had fewer previous births than those women who gave formula milk as the first feed to their infant. The occurrence of an episiotomy during delivery was not associated with a change in the odds of the infant receiving human milk for the first feed (OR: 1.12 [confidence interval, CI: 0.96-1.38]). Where a woman had skin-to-skin care with her infant straight after birth, the infant was more likely to receive human milk as a first feed (OR: 4.23 [CI: 3.59-4.98]). Conclusion: There is no link between episiotomy during delivery and the odds of a woman giving human milk as the first feed to her infant.
  • Effects of a high-dose 24-h infusion of tranexamic acid on death and thromboembolic events in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding (HALT-IT): an international randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    HALT-IT Trial Collaborators; Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (2020-06)
    Summary Background: Tranexamic acid reduces surgical bleeding and reduces death due to bleeding in patients with trauma. Meta-analyses of small trials show that tranexamic acid might decrease deaths from gastrointestinal bleeding. We aimed to assess the effects of tranexamic acid in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Findings: Between July 4, 2013, and June 21, 2019, we randomly allocated 12 009 patients to receive tranexamic acid (5994, 49·9%) or matching placebo (6015, 50·1%), of whom 11 952 (99·5%) received the first dose of the allocated treatment. Death due to bleeding within 5 days of randomisation occurred in 222 (4%) of 5956 patients in the tranexamic acid group and in 226 (4%) of 5981 patients in the placebo group (risk ratio [RR] 0·99, 95% CI 0·82–1·18). Arterial thromboembolic events (myocardial infarction or stroke) were similar in the tranexamic acid group and placebo group (42 [0·7%] of 5952 vs 46 [0·8%] of 5977; 0·92; 0·60 to 1·39). Venous thromboembolic events (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) were higher in tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (48 [0·8%] of 5952 vs 26 [0·4%] of 5977; RR 1·85; 95% CI 1·15 to 2·98). Interpretation We found that tranexamic acid did not reduce death from gastrointestinal bleeding. On the basis of our results, tranexamic acid should not be used for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding outside the context of a randomised trial.
  • Effectiveness of a behavioural intervention involving regular weighing and feedback by community midwives within routine antenatal care to prevent excessive gestational weight gain: POPS2 randomised controlled trial.

    Ohadike, Corah (2019-09)
    Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of a brief behavioural intervention based on routine antenatal weighing to prevent excessive gestational weight gain (defined by US Institute of Medicine). Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Antenatal clinic in England. Participants: Women between 10+0 and 14+6 weeks gestation, not requiring specialist obstetric care. Interventions: Participants were randomised to usual antenatal care or usual care (UC) plus the intervention. The intervention involved community midwives weighing women at antenatal appointments, setting maximum weight gain limits between appointments and providing brief feedback. Women were encouraged to monitor and record their own weight weekly to assess their progress against the maximum limits set by their midwife. The comparator was usual maternity care. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures: Excessive gestational weight gain, depression, anxiety and physical activity. Results: Six hundred and fifty-six women from four maternity centres were recruited: 329 women were randomised to the intervention group and 327 to UC. We found no evidence that the intervention decreased excessive gestational weight gain. At 38 weeks gestation, the proportions gaining excessive gestational weight were 27.6% (81/305) versus 28.9% (90/311) (adjusted OR 0.84, 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.33) in the intervention and UC group, respectively. There were no significant difference between the groups in anxiety or depression scores (anxiety: adjusted mean -0.58, 95% CI:-1.25 to -0.8; depression: adjusted mean -0.60, 95% CI:-1.24 to -0.05). There were no significant differences in physical activity scores between the groups. Conclusions: A behavioural intervention delivered by community midwives involving routine weighing throughout pregnancy, setting maximum weight gain targets and encouraging women to weigh themselves each week to check progress did not prevent excessive gestational weight gain. There was no evidence of psychological harm.
  • . Evaluation of the Implementation of the Saving Babies’ Lives Care Bundle in early adopter NHS Trusts in England.

    Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, University of Manchester., 2018-11)
    This report presents the findings from the Saving Babies Lives Project Impact and Results Evaluation (SPiRE) conducted by the Tommy's Stillbirth Research Centre at the University of Manchester commissioned by NHS England in May 2016. The report describes the results of a comprehensive evaluation involving nineteen NHS trusts in England that have been implementing the Saving Babies' Lives Care Bundle (SBLCB) since April 2015, which aims to reduce the incidence of stillbirth by implementing best practice in four aspects of maternity care. This report describes the degree of implementation, the clinical and service outcomes and the economic impact(s) following a maximum two year implementation period in these early adopter Trusts and crucially, whether implementation of the SBLCB translates into fewer stillbirths. ... Stillbirth rates, clinical and service outcomes, element outcomes, estimated costs relating to SBLCB implementation and local guideline appraisal are reported. Information about the impact of implementation of the SBLCB on staff and services is described. participating trusts were assigned a letter for anonymization in the analysis. ... During the time period analysed in the early adopter Trusts there was a statistically significant reduction in stillbirth of 20%; this reduction was also seen in term stillbirths. Due to variations in the timing and level of implementation of the various elements of the SBLCB this reduction cannot be unambiguously related to its implementation. However, it is highly plausible that the SBLCB contributed to the fall in stillbirths.
  • Alterations in maternally perceived fetal movement and their association with late stillbirth: findings from the Midland and North of England stillbirth case-control study.

    Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (2018-07)
    OBJECTIVE: To report perception of fetal movements in women who experienced a stillbirth compared with controls at a similar gestation with a live birth. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: 41 maternity units in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were women who had a late stillbirth >/=28 weeks gestation (n=291) and controls were women with an ongoing pregnancy at the time of the interview (n=733). Controls were frequency matched to cases by obstetric unit and gestational age. METHODS: Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire which included questions on maternal perception of fetal movement (frequency, strength, increased and decreased movements and hiccups) in the 2 weeks before the interview/stillbirth. Five fetal movement patterns were identified incorporating the changes in strength and frequency in the last 2 weeks by combining groups of similar pattern and risk. Multivariable analysis adjusted for known confounders. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Association of maternally perceived fetal movements in relation to late stillbirth. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, women who reported increased strength of movements in the last 2 weeks had decreased risk of late stillbirth compared with those whose movements were unchanged (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.18, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.26). Women with decreased frequency (without increase in strength) of fetal movements were at increased risk (aOR 4.51, 95% CI 2.38 to 8.55). Daily perception of fetal hiccups was protective (aOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: Increased strength of fetal movements and fetal hiccups is associated with decreased risk of stillbirth. Alterations in frequency of fetal movements are important in identifying pregnancies at increased risk of stillbirth, with the greatest risk in women noting a reduction in fetal activity. Clinical guidance should be updated to reflect that increase in strength and frequency of fetal movements is associated with the lowest risk of stillbirth, and that decreased fetal movements are associated with stillbirth.
  • Efficacy of metformin in pregnant obese women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (2015-01-14)
    INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence suggests obesity has its origins prior to birth. There is clear correlation between maternal obesity, high birthweight and offspring risk of obesity in later life. It is also clear that women who are obese during pregnancy are at greater risk of adverse outcomes, including gestational diabetes and stillbirth. The mechanism(s) by which obesity causes these problems is unknown, although hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are strongly implicated. We present a protocol for a study to test the hypothesis that metformin will improve insulin sensitivity in obese pregnant women, thereby reducing the incidence of high birthweight babies and other pregnancy complications. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Efficacy of Metformin in Pregnant Obese Women, a Randomised controlled (EMPOWaR) trial is a double-masked randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether metformin given to obese (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) pregnant women from 16 weeks' gestation until delivery reduces the incidence of high birthweight babies. A secondary aim is to test the mechanism(s) of any effect. Obese women with a singleton pregnancy and normal glucose tolerance will be recruited prior to 16 weeks' gestation and prescribed study medication, metformin or placebo, to be taken until delivery. Further study visits will occur at 28 and 36 weeks' gestation for glucose tolerance testing and to record anthropometric measurements. Birth weight and other measurements will be recorded at time of delivery. Anthropometry of mother and baby will be performed at 3 months postdelivery. As of January 2014, 449 women had been randomised across the UK. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice. A favourable ethical opinion was obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee, reference number 10/MRE00/12. Results will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals.
  • Effect of metformin on maternal and fetal outcomes in obese pregnant women (EMPOWaR): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (2015-07)
    BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased birthweight, and obesity and premature mortality in adult offspring. The mechanism by which maternal obesity leads to these outcomes is not well understood, but maternal hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are both implicated. We aimed to establish whether the insulin sensitising drug metformin improves maternal and fetal outcomes in obese pregnant women without diabetes. METHODS: We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in antenatal clinics at 15 National Health Service hospitals in the UK. Pregnant women (aged >/=16 years) between 12 and 16 weeks' gestation who had a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or more and normal glucose tolerance were randomly assigned (1:1), via a web-based computer-generated block randomisation procedure (block size of two to four), to receive oral metformin 500 mg (increasing to a maximum of 2500 mg) or matched placebo daily from between 12 and 16 weeks' gestation until delivery of the baby. Randomisation was stratified by study site and BMI band (30-39 vs >/=40 kg/m(2)). Participants, caregivers, and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome was Z score corresponding to the gestational age, parity, and sex-standardised birthweight percentile of liveborn babies delivered at 24 weeks or more of gestation. We did analysis by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN number 51279843. FINDINGS: Between Feb 3, 2011, and Jan 16, 2014, inclusive, we randomly assigned 449 women to either placebo (n=223) or metformin (n=226), of whom 434 (97%) were included in the final modified intention-to-treat analysis. Mean birthweight at delivery was 3463 g (SD 660) in the placebo group and 3462 g (548) in the metformin group. The estimated effect size of metformin on the primary outcome was non-significant (adjusted mean difference -0.029, 95% CI -0.217 to 0.158; p=0.7597). The difference in the number of women reporting the combined adverse outcome of miscarriage, termination of pregnancy, stillbirth, or neonatal death in the metformin group (n=7) versus the placebo group (n=2) was not significant (odds ratio 3.60, 95% CI 0.74-17.50; p=0.11). INTERPRETATION: Metformin has no significant effect on birthweight percentile in obese pregnant women. Further follow-up of babies born to mothers in the EMPOWaR study will identify longer-term outcomes of metformin in this population; in the meantime, metformin should not be used to improve pregnancy outcomes in obese women without diabetes.
  • Prediction of complications in early-onset pre-eclampsia (PREP): development and external multinational validation of prognostic models.

    Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; PREP Collaborative Network (2017-03)
    Background Unexpected clinical deterioration before 34 weeks gestation is an undesired course in early-onset pre-eclampsia. To safely prolong preterm gestation, accurate and timely prediction of complications is required. Method Women with confirmed early onset pre-eclampsia were recruited from 53 maternity units in the UK to a large prospective cohort study (PREP-946) for development of prognostic models for the overall risk of experiencing a complication using logistic regression (PREP-L), and for predicting the time to adverse maternal outcome using a survival model (PREP-S). External validation of the models were carried out in a multinational cohort (PIERS-634) and another cohort from the Netherlands (PETRA-216). Main outcome measures were C-statistics to summarise discrimination of the models and calibration plots and calibration slopes. Results A total of 169 mothers (18%) in the PREP dataset had adverse outcomes by 48 hours, and 633 (67%) by discharge. The C-statistics of the models for predicting complications by 48 hours and by discharge were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.81–0.87; PREP-S) and 0.82 (0.80–0.84; PREP-L), respectively. The PREP-S model included maternal age, gestation, medical history, systolic blood pressure, deep tendon reflexes, urine protein creatinine ratio, platelets, serum alanine amino transaminase, urea, creatinine, oxygen saturation and treatment with antihypertensives or magnesium sulfate. The PREP-L model included the above except deep tendon reflexes, serum alanine amino transaminase and creatinine. On validation in the external PIERS dataset, the reduced PREP-S model showed reasonable calibration (slope 0.80) and discrimination (C-statistic 0.75) for predicting adverse outcome by 48 hours. Reduced PREP-L model showed excellent calibration (slope: 0.93 PIERS, 0.90 PETRA) and discrimination (0.81 PIERS, 0.75 PETRA) for predicting risk by discharge in the two external datasets. Conclusions PREP models can be used to obtain predictions of adverse maternal outcome risk, including early preterm delivery, by 48 hours (PREP-S) and by discharge (PREP-L), in women with early onset pre-eclampsia in the context of current care. They have a potential role in triaging high-risk mothers who may need transfer to tertiary units for intensive maternal and neonatal care.
  • Do postmenopausal women with thickened endometrium on trans-vaginal ultrasound in the absence of vaginal bleeding need hysteroscopic assessment? A Pilot Study.

    Laiyemo, R. (2016-02)
    We aimed to determine the incidence of endometrial cancer in a cohort of postmenopausal women with thickened endometrium but no bleeding referred for hysteroscopy and determine the risk estimate of cancer using a cut-off of > 11 mm. This retrospective study of asymptomatic postmenopausal women with thickened endometrium on trans-vaginal scan referred for hysteroscopy was performed using data from 2008 to 2010. In total 63 women were identified. 2 cases of endometrial cancer were identified with an incidence of 3.17%. 22 cases had endometrial thickness (ET) > 11 mm of which 2 were malignant giving a risk estimate for endometrial cancer of 9.1%. 61 women had benign pathology, 40.98% had atrophic endometrium and 59.02% had benign polyp. In conclusion, the incidence of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women with thickened endometrium on transvaginal scan without vaginal bleeding is low and ET of 11 mm or more seems realistic to use as a cut-off for referral for hysteroscopy.
  • KAPT block: A new innovative precision block for operative outpatient hysteroscopy.

    Laiyemo, R. (RCOG World Congress 2016, 2016-06)
    To assess the effectiveness of a novel precision local anaesthetic block known as KAPT block in operative outpatient hysteroscopy especially in patients with pre-existing dysmenorrhea.
  • A case of fallopian tube prolapse through the posterior fornix with retained shelf pessary.

    Biswas, Bivas (2014-08)
    Pessaries are a viable alternative to the surgical management of prolapse. Occasional cases of vesicovaginal fistula, rectovaginal fistula, erosion and subsequent impaction have been reported. Fallopian tube prolapse has rarely been reported post hysterectomy, but neither with pessary use nor with an intact uterus. We report a case of prolapsed fallopian tube subsequent to a neglected pessary, presenting as vaginal bleeding, with a coincidental asymptomatic endometrial polyp which was picked up by chance. Women with tubal prolapse may be asymptomatic and observation alone might lead to resolution as evident in our case.
  • Maternal tissue blood flow and oxygen saturation in pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction.

    Karanam, Vijuk (2014-07)
    Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that impaired maternal tissue perfusion occurs in pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and this correlates with maternal tissue oxygenation. Study Design: Strain gauge plethysmography was used to compare maternal calf blood flow during the third trimester in 16 women with pre-eclampsia, 6 women with IUGR and 16 normal pregnant controls. A Mediaid iPOX pulse oximeter was used to measure maternal tissue oxygenation in the three groups and these were compared with tissue blood flow. Results: Maternal tissue blood flow was significantly reduced in pre-eclampsia compared to the two other groups (p=0.003). Blood flow was significantly reduced in pre-eclampsia compared to IUGR (p=0.03). However there was no difference in blood flow between normal pregnancy and IUGR groups (p=0.76). No significant difference was noted in maternal tissue oxygenation between the normal pregnancy, pre-eclampsia and IUGR groups (mean±S.E.M. [97.13±0.4, 96.69±0.33, 97.83±0.47 respectively], p=0.26). No correlation was noted between blood flow and tissue oxygenation in the three groups of women. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that reduced maternal resting tissue blood flow present in women with pre-eclampsia is not seen in women with IUGR and the reduction in blood flow in pre-eclampsia is not associated with changes in maternal tissue oxygenation.
  • Randomized Trial of Labor Induction in Women 35 Years of Age or Older.

    35/39 Trial Group (2016-03-03)
    Background: The risk of antepartum stillbirth at term is higher among women 35 years of age or older than among younger women. Labor induction may reduce the risk of stillbirth, but it also may increase the risk of cesarean delivery, which already is common in this older age group.Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial involving primigravid women who were 35 years of age or older. Women were randomly assigned to labor induction between 39 weeks 0 days and 39 weeks 6 days of gestation or to expectant management (i.e., waiting until the spontaneous onset of labor or until the development of a medical problem that mandated induction). The primary outcome was cesarean delivery. The trial was not designed or powered to assess the effects of labor induction on stillbirth.Results: A total of 619 women underwent randomization. In an intention-to-treat analysis, there were no significant between-group differences in the percentage of women who underwent a cesarean section (98 of 304 women in the induction group [32%] and 103 of 314 women in the expectant-management group [33%]; relative risk, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.14) or in the percentage of women who had a vaginal delivery with the use of forceps or vacuum (115 of 304 women [38%] and 104 of 314 women [33%], respectively; relative risk, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.77). There were no maternal or infant deaths and no significant between-group differences in the women's experience of childbirth or in the frequency of adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes.Conclusions: Among women of advanced maternal age, induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation, as compared with expectant management, had no significant effect on the rate of cesarean section and no adverse short-term effects on maternal or neonatal outcomes.
  • Placental Blood Drainage as a Part of Active Management of Third Stage of Labour After Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery

    Biswas, Bivas (2016-03)
    AIM The third stage of labour commences after the delivery of the foetus and ends with the delivery of the placenta and its membranes. Postpartum haemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal mortality and accounts for about 25 % of maternal deaths in India. OBJECTIVES The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of placental blood drainage after spontaneous vaginal delivery as part of active management of third stage of labour in decreasing the duration, blood loss, and complications of the third stage, against no drainage of placental blood. METHODOLOGY Two hundred pregnant patients with 37 or more weeks of gestation, with single live foetus in cephalic presentation, who underwent a spontaneous vaginal delivery, were included in the study. The patients were prospectively randomized equally into two groups (100 each in the study and control groups). Placental blood was drained in all the patients in the study group, whereas in the control group the cord blood was not drained. Blood lost in the third stage of labour was measured by collecting in a disposable conical measuring bag, and blood from the episiotomy was mopped, and the mops were discarded separately. RESULTS The baseline statistics in both the group were comparable. The duration of third stage of labour was 210.5 s in the study group and 302.5 s in the control group. The 'p' value was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.0001). The mean blood loss in study group was 227.5 ml and was 313.3 ml in the control group (p ≤ 0.0001). The incidence of postpartum haemorrhage was 1 % in study group and 9 % in control group. The mean drop in Hb % level was 0.6 gm/dl in study group and 1.1 gm/dl in control group. These above differences were both statistically significant. CONCLUSION Placental blood drainage as part of active management of third stage of labour was effective in reducing the duration, the blood loss, and also the incidence of PPH. Placental blood drainage is a simple, safe, and non-invasive method of managing the third stage of labour, which can be practiced in both tertiary care centres as well as rural setup in addition to the routine uterotonics.
  • Not All Acute Abdomen Cases in Early Pregnancy Are Ectopic; Expect the Unexpected: Renal Angiomyolipoma Causing Massive Retroperitoneal Haemorrhage

    Rana, Muhammad Asim; Ahmad, Habib; Naser, Kamal (2016-06)
    Retroperitoneal haemorrhage (or retroperitoneal haematoma) refers to an accumulation of blood found in the retroperitoneal space. It is a rare clinical entity with variable aetiology including anticoagulation, ruptured aortic aneurysm, acute pancreatitis, malignancy, and bleeding from renal aneurysm. Diagnosis of retroperitoneal bleed is sometimes missed or delayed as presentation is often nonspecific. Multislice CT and arteriography are important for diagnosis. There is no consensus about the best management plan for patients with retroperitoneal haematoma. Stable patients can be managed with fluid resuscitation, correction of coagulopathy if any, and blood transfusion. Endovascular options involving selective intra-arterial embolisation or stent-grafts are clearly getting more and more popularity. Open repair is usually reserved for cases when there is failure of conservative or endovascular measures to control the bleeding or expertise is unavailable and in cases where the patient is unstable. Mortality of patients with retroperitoneal haematoma remains high if appropriate and timely measures are not taken. Haemorrhage from a benign renal tumour is a rarer entity which is described in this case report which emphasizes that physicians should have a wide index of suspicion when dealing with patients presenting with significant groin, flank, abdominal, or back pain, or haemodynamic instability of unclear cause. Our patient presented with features of acute abdomen and, being pregnant, was thought of having a ruptured ectopic pregnancy.
  • Role of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Vaginal Delivery

    Biswas, Bivas (2016-10)
    Anti-fibrinolytic agents are used to reduce obstetric blood loss as the fibrinolytic system is known to get activated after placental delivery. To evaluate the efficacy of parenteral tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during normal labour and to compare it with the amount of blood loss in patients who received placebo in the third stage of labour. Patients with spontaneous labour or planned for induction of labour and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. In each patient, the pre-delivery pulse rate, blood pressure, Hb gm% and PCV% were noted. Labour was monitored carefully using a partogram. The study group received Inj. Oxytocin and Inj. Tranexamic acid. The control group received Inj. Oxytocin and Placebo injection. Immediately after delivery of the baby, when all the liquor was drained, the patient was placed over a blood drape-a disposable conical, graduated plastic collection bag. The amount of blood collected in the blood drape was measured. Then the patient was given pre-weighed pads, which were weighed 2 h post-partum. The blood loss was measured by measuring the blood collected in the drape and by weighing the swabs before and after delivery. The total number of patients studied was 100-equally distributed in both the groups. The age group of the patients and BMI were comparable. There was a significant increase in the pulse rate and decrease in blood pressure in the control group as compared with the study group. The post-delivery haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in the control group as compared to the study group. The mean blood loss at the end of 2 h was 105 ml in the study group and 252 ml in the control group. There was a significant increase in the usage of uterotonics and also in the need for blood transfusion in the control group; 12 % of the patients in the control group had to stay for more than 3 days compared to 2 % in the study group. Tranexamic acid injection, an antifibrinolytic agent when given prophylactically after the delivery of the baby, by intravenous route appears to reduce the blood loss and maternal morbidity during normal labour effectively.