• Developing a range of services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems: A response to Eisenman

      McMurran, Mary (1990)
      Eisenman's 1990 criticisms of a published pilot study of the use of self-help manuals with prisoners who have alcohol-related problems are addressed. Self-help manuals may be of value where other interventions are not applicable. Completion of the extended study should provide quantitatively based conclusions.
    • Food refusal in prison

      Larkin, Emmet P. (1991)
      The prevalence of mental disorder amongst prisoners refusing food was studied by examining the prison records of a remand prison and a dispersal prison. Food refusal occurred predominantly in the remand prison. Less than one per cent of the annual remand population engaged in this behaviour. The results indicate that prisoners refusing food do so as a form of protest and that the prevalence of mental disorder among such prisoners is high. The majority respond to observation and counselling. Important indicators of psychosis are: (i) the inability of the prisoner to divulge reasons for his behaviour; and (ii) the refusal by the prisoner of both food and fluids. In such cases transfer to hospital for treatment may be urgently required.
    • Towards guiding principles for effective intervention

      McMurran, Mary (1994)
      Interventions aimed at modifying drinking are important for prisoners whose crimes are alcohol-related. These interventions should be designed with reference to current knowledge of what is effective, and recent meta-analyses of correctional research provide relevant information. It has been suggested that effective interventions adhere to three guiding principles: they (1) target high-risk groups; (2) address criminogenic need; and (3) are appropriate to offender groups. These three principles are examined in relation to alcohol interventions, concluding with a set of guiding principles for effective alcohol interventions. © 1994, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.
    • Assessment and management of individuals under the influence of alcohol in police custody

      Lawton, John D. (1996)
      Individuals taken into police custody are commonly under the influence of alcohol. Some of these individuals are dependent on alcohol and suffer from withdrawal symptoms. Morbidity and mortality in this group is high, and deaths have been recorded in police custody. There are no specific guidelines on the assessment and management of individuals under the influence of alcohol taken into police custody. This article outlines the clinical features, assessment, investigations and management of these individuals based on a review of the literature.
    • Intent

      Larkin, Emmet P. (1997)
    • Prison transfers to special hospitals since the introduction of the Mental Health Act 1983

      Larkin, Emmet P. (1997)
      Research on prisoners transferred to Special Hospitals during the currency of the Mental Health Act 1959 raised concerns about delays in transfer, prisoners being transferred late in their sentence, and prisoners, often sex offenders, being detained in hospital for prolonged periods. The latter gave rise to worry that the Special Hospitals were being used to detain patients preventively. This study dealt with sentenced prisoners transferred to the three Special Hospitals of England and Wales after the introduction of the Mental Health Act 1983. Its purpose was to consider whether the concerns raised earlier remained valid. The records of all patients transferred from prison to Special Hospital during the period 1984-91 were reviewed. Of all admissions to the Special Hospitals, 351 (23%) were transferred prisoners. The admission characteristics of the transferred group were similar to those of other referrals. The results failed to confirm the earlier concerns. In most cases prisoners were transferred to hospital within 2 months of being assessed. There was little evidence that transfer was being used to lengthen a prison sentence and no evidence that time spent in hospital reflected the gravity of the offence.
    • Addicted to crime?

      Hodge, John E.; McMurran, Mary; Hollin, Clive R. (1997)
    • Addiction to violence

      Hodge, John E. (1997)
    • Fitness to be interviewed and psychological vulnerability: The views of doctors, lawyers and police officers

      Hayes, Gwilym D. (2000)
      Forensic medical examiners, psychiatrists and clinical psychologists are increasingly being asked to evaluate police detainees' fitness for interview. The aim of the present study was to further our understanding of the psychological factors that are considered important by the relevant professional groups in this evaluation process. Consultant psychiatrists, forensic medical examiners, lawyers and police officers rated the importance of detainees' psychological vulnerabilities in terms of fitness for interview. Those most commonly identified were: confusion and disorientation, withdrawing from heroin, communication problems, a paranoid belief, and not seeming to understand simple questions. In contrast, claiming amnesia, depression and appearing suggestible and eager to please were not factors that respondents thought rendered the detainees unfit for interview. Among all groups, there appeared to be a view that an appropriate adult (AA) and a solicitor could be used interchangeably, and rarely were both seen as needed. Clearer guidelines regarding psychological vulnerabilities and the role of the appropriate adult are needed.
    • Homicide in northern Nigeria: An evaluation of motives

      Mafullul, Yakubu M. (2000)
      A survey of the motives associated with homicide in northern Nigeria was conducted based on an interview of a sample of convicted homicide offenders in a Nigerian federal prison. 118 subjects with a mean age of 33.9 +/- 10.9 years at the time of their offenses, and comprising 84.9% of all homicide convicts participated in the study. A scrutiny of relevant court and prison records on each offender was carried out. Forty-three convicts had killed their victims in circumstances of group activity; economic (72.1%), political (11.6%), and religious (16.3%) motives accounted for their offenses. Seventy- five convicts had killed their victims in circumstances of one-to-one activity; various motives accounted for such events, including alcohol intoxication and psychiatric disorder (37.4%), sexual jealousy (17.3%), fights arising from personal insult and previous trespass (17.3%), revenge in relation to allegations of witchcraft (13.3%), Fulani tribesmen initiation rites (5.3%), self-defense and accidental killings (6.8%), and, the concealment of illegitimate pregnancy and childbirth (1.3%). The implications of these observations are discussed, and recommendations made on ways of reducing the needless loss of life in this Nigerian subregion.
    • Homicide in northern Nigeria: A clinico-forensic survey

      Mafullul, Yakubu M. (2000)
      The clinico-forensic aspects of homicide in northern Nigeria are presented, based on an interview of 118 subjects comprising 85% of homicide convicts at the Jos federal prison: Although psychotic motives and acute alcohol intoxication were held by the courts to account for the offenses of 24% of the accused, the study suggests that psychotic motives and substance use disorders (including alcohol intoxication) could be held to account for the offenses of 39.8% of the accused. There was under-utilization of psychiatric services in the trial and disposition of homicide offenders. A recommendation is made for greater liaison between the criminal justice system and mental health services.
    • A review of the literature on positional asphyxia as a possible cause of sudden death during restraint

      Parkes, John (2002)
      A small but significant number of people die during restraint by hospital staff, police or prison officers. One possible mechanism for this has been termed 'positional asphyxia'. There is literature to suggest that deaths that occur in circumstances involving restraint may be related to certain positions, but early research has been contested. This article presents a balanced review of the literature and findings and concludes that the evidence remains unclear. However the literature does point to practical measures that should be adopted by those whose work is likely to require restraint of extreme violence, to avoid risk of death. These are summarised.
    • Police case disposal: An introduction for psychiatrists

      Brown, Adrian R. (2002)
      Comments on the article by R. Bayney and G. Ikkos (see record 2002-13383-004) which described the Police Case Disposal Scheme. The author states that Bayney and Ikkos provide a helpful outline of the elements of the police decision-making process with respect to referrals of those with mental disorders. However, the author claims that they made 2 important omissions. Those omissions are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
    • The level of service inventory-revised profile of English prisoners - A needs analysis

      Hollin, Clive R.; Palmer, Emma J. (2003)
      This study considers the applicability of the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) with an English prison population. After slight modification of the LSI-R for use in England, several items were added to amplify it for use in prisons. As data from an English prison population have not previously been published, full details are presented. Comparison with data from a Canadian prison population suggests that the LSI-R functions in a similar manner in assessing needs for both populations. The calculation of test-retest change scores over the duration of the sentence, based on the dynamic risk items, represents a new use of the LSI-R. This study precedes another study presently under way using this data set to search for relationships between LSI-R scores and recidivism. Such relationships, if reliably established, would have several applications within the prison service in terms of sentence planning and risk assessment.
    • Using the psychological inventory of criminal thinking styles with English prisoners

      Palmer, Emma J. (2003)
      Purpose. This study considers the use of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) within an English prison population. Method. The reliability and validity of the PICTS scales were investigated, and scores compared with data from an American prison population. Results. The results suggested that the PICTS was functioning in a similar way in both populations, although the English population's scores were higher. The calculation of test-retest change scores over the duration of 6-12-month sentences allowed the sensitivity of PICTS scales to change over time to be analysed, an aspect of the PICTS functioning that had not previously been examined. This analysis over time suggested that even when the effect of age was controlled for, changes were occurring over the duration of the sentence. Conclusion. The potential of the PICTS as a measure of change, as well as assessment, is discussed.