Recent Submissions

  • Pet Ownership and Multiple Sclerosis during COVID-19

    Edwards, Laura (2021)
    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with lower quality of life, reduced social participation, and decreased self-efficacy. The COVID-19 pandemic has had documented effects on the health and wellbeing of people with and without MS. Previous research has demonstrated the positive impact pets can have for people living with long-term conditions. Objectives: To explore the rates of pet ownership and pet attachment in people living with MS and pet ownership associations with quality of life, satisfaction with social roles, and self-efficacy scores; and to explore the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on people's perceived relationships with their pets. Materials and Methods: A postal questionnaire was distributed to members of a local MS Register and a control group of people without MS. The questionnaire assessed quality of life, satisfaction with social roles, self-efficacy, the perceived roles of pets, and pet-related concerns experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: No apparent difference in attachment to pets was found between the patient and control groups. Pet ownership and level of attachment were not associated with differences in quality of life or self-efficacy scores in people living with MS. Using multiple regression analysis, pet ownership was associated with a decrease in satisfaction with participation in social roles, but with the estimated effect being small compared to having a diagnosis of MS or being unemployed. Most participants reported that pets had positive roles during the pandemic, and the most reported pet-related concern was access to veterinary treatment. Conclusion: Pet owners both with and without MS reported subjective benefits to their wellbeing from pet ownership during COVID-19, although analysis suggested that pet ownership was associated with a reduction in satisfaction with social roles. The study had several limitations and suggestions are made for future work.
  • Current preoperative physiotherapy management strategies for patients awaiting Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR): A worldwide survey of physiotherapy practice

    Carter, Hayley; Smith, Benjamin (2021-01)
    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are the most common ligament injury to the knee with surgical reconstruction considered standard treatment. This study aimed to explore the current physiotherapy management strategies used during the preoperative phase of rehabilitation for patients awaiting anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Methods: An anonymous survey was disseminated online via Twitter and the 'interactive Chartered Society of Physiotherapy' message board. Practising physiotherapists who treated at least one patient prior to ACLR in the past year were invited to take part. Responses were collected over a 4-week period in March 2020. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: In total, 183 respondents replied; 122 completed the full survey. Responses were collected from 20 countries across 3 settings, NHS/public health services, private and sports. Most respondents reported prescribing exercises, advice and education to patients during prehabilitation. Up to 40% also utilised passive treatments including manual therapy, taping/bracing and electrotherapy. The frequency of recommended exercise completion and length of treatment varied. Most respondents (n = 103/84.4%) felt that many patients waiting for ACLR did not receive prehabilitation. Many physiotherapists reported that patients expressed concerns regarding their readiness for surgery (n = 61/50%) and return to preinjury levels of physical activity (n = 112/91.8%). Almost all respondents would discuss non-operative management with patients (n = 112/91.8%) if they had returned to their preinjury level of physical activity before their ACLR. Conclusion: Overall, this survey provides some insight as to how physiotherapists manage patients awaiting ACLR. Areas of uncertainty in physiotherapy practice have also been highlighted that require further high-quality research.
  • The time course of physiological adaptations to high-intensity interval training in older adults

    Herrod, Philip; Blackwell, James; Boereboom, CL; Williams, John P; Lund, Jonathan (2020-09)
    Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to be more effective than moderate continuous aerobic exercise for improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a limited time frame. However, the length of time required for HIIT to elicit clinically significant improvements in the CRF of older adults is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to compare changes in the CRF of older adults completing identical HIIT protocols of varying durations. Methods: Forty healthy, community-dwelling older adults completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) before and after 2, 4, or 6 weeks of fully supervised HIIT on a cycle ergometer, or a no-intervention control period. Results: Anaerobic threshold (AT) was increased only after 4 (+1.9 [SD 1.1] mL/kg/min) and 6 weeks (+1.9 [SD 1.8] mL/kg/min) of HIIT (both P < 0.001), with 6-week HIIT required to elicit improvements in VO2 peak (+3.0 [SD 6] mL/kg/min; P = 0.04). Exercise tolerance increased after 2 (+15 [SD 15] W), 4 (+17 [SD 11] W), and 6 weeks (+16 [SD 11] W) of HIIT (all P < 0.001), with no difference in increase between the groups. There were no changes in any parameter in the control group. Conclusion: Improvements in exercise tolerance from HIIT precede changes in CRF. Just 4 weeks of a well-tolerated, reduced-exertion HIIT protocol are required to produce significant changes in AT, with a further 2 weeks of training also eliciting improvements in VO2 peak.
  • High-intensity interval training produces a significant improvement in fitness in less than 31 days before surgery for urological cancer: a randomised control trial

    Blackwell, James; Doleman, Brett; Boereboom, CL; Atherton, P; Smith, K; Williams, John P; Phillips, Bethan; Lund, Jonathan (2020-12)
    Objectives: To assess the efficacy of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in patients awaiting resection for urological malignancy within four weeks. Subjects/patients and methods: A randomised control trial of consecutive patients aged (>65 years) scheduled for major urological surgery in a large secondary referral centre in a UK hospital. The primary outcome is change in anaerobic threshold (VO2AT) following HIIT vs. standard care. Results: Forty patients were recruited (mean age 72 years, male (39): female (1)) with 34 completing the protocol. Intention to treat analysis showed significant improvements in anaerobic threshold (VO2AT; mean difference (MD) 2.26 ml/kg/min (95% CI 1.25-3.26)) following HIIT. Blood pressure (BP) also significantly reduced in following: HIIT (SBP: -8.2 mmHg (95% CI -16.09 to -0.29) and DBP: -6.47 mmHg (95% CI -12.56 to -0.38)). No reportable adverse safety events occurred during HIIT and all participants achieved >85% predicted maximum heart rate during sessions, with protocol adherence of 84%. Conclusions: HIIT can improve CRF and cardiovascular health, representing clinically meaningful and achievable pre-operative improvements. Larger randomised trials are required to investigate the efficacy of prehabilitation HIIT upon different cancer types, post-operative complications, socio-economic impact and long-term survival.
  • Time-efficient physical activity interventions to reduce blood pressure in older adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    Herrod, Philip; Lund, Jonathan (2020-10)
    Background: Hypertension is a risk factor for both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, with an increasing incidence with advancing patient age. Exercise interventions have the potential to reduce blood pressure in older adults, however, rates of exercise uptake and adherence are low, with 'lack of time' a commonly cited reason. As such, there remains the need for time-efficient physical activity interventions to reduce blood pressure in older adults. Objective: To compare the effect of three, novel time-efficient physical activity interventions on resting blood pressure in older adults. Methods: Forty-eight, healthy, community-dwelling older adults (mean age: 71 years) were recruited to a 6-week randomised control trial. Resting blood pressure was measured before and after one of three supervised, time-efficient interventions: high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on a cycle ergometer; isometric handgrip training (IHG); unilateral, upper limb remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) or non-intervention control. Results: Both HIIT and IHG led to a statistically significant reduction in resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 9 mmHg, with no significant change in the RIPC or control groups. There was no change in diastolic blood pressure or pulse pressure in any group. Conclusions: Supervised HIIT or IHG using the protocols described in this study can lead to statistically significant and clinically relevant reductions in resting SBP in healthy older adults in just 6 weeks.
  • The effectiveness of preoperative rehabilitation programmes on postoperative outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction: a systematic review

    Carter, Hayley; Smith, Benjamin (2020-10)
    Background: To explore the effectiveness of preoperative rehabilitation programmes (PreHab) on postoperative physical and psychological outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Method: A systematic search was conducted from inception to November 2019. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English were included. Risk of bias was assessed using Version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment system was used to evaluate the quality of evidence. Results: The search identified 739 potentially eligible studies, three met the inclusion criteria. All included RCTs scored 'high' risk of bias. PreHab in all three RCTs was an exercise programme, each varied in content (strength, control, balance and perturbation training), frequency (10 to 24 sessions) and length (3.1- to 6-weeks). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were reported for quadriceps strength (one RCT) and single leg hop scores (two RCTs) in favour of PreHab three months after ACLR, compared to no PreHab. One RCT reported no statistically significant between-group difference for pain and function. No RCT evaluated post-operative psychological outcomes. Conclusion: Very low quality evidence suggests that PreHab that includes muscular strength, balance and perturbation training offers a small benefit to quadriceps strength and single leg hop scores three months after ACLR compared with no PreHab. There is no consensus on the optimum PreHab programme content, frequency and length. Further research is needed to develop PreHab programmes that consider psychosocial factors and the measurement of relevant post-operative outcomes such as psychological readiness and return to sport. Trial registration: PROSPERO trial registration number. CRD42020162754 .
  • Patients' attitudes towards cost feedback to doctors to prevent unnecessary testing: a qualitative focus group study

    Skelly, Robert; Thurley, Peter; Sturrock, Nigel; Norwood, Mark (2020-07)
    OBJECTIVES: There is a need to improve efficiency in healthcare delivery without compromising quality of care. One approach is the development and evaluation of behavioural strategies to reduce unnecessary use of common tests. However, there is an absence of evidence on patient attitudes to the use of such approaches in the delivery of care. Our objective was to explore patient acceptability of a nudge-type intervention that aimed to modify blood test requests by hospital doctors. STUDY DESIGN: Single-centre qualitative study. METHODS: The financial costs of common blood tests were presented to hospital doctors on results reports for 1 year at a hospital. Focus group discussions were conducted with recent inpatients at the hospital using a semi-structured question schedule. Discussions were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis to identify and prioritise common themes explaining attitudes to the intervention approach. RESULTS: Three focus groups involving 17 participants were conducted. Patients were generally apprehensive about the provision of blood test cost feedback to doctors. Attitudes were organised around themes representing beliefs about blood tests, the impact on doctors and their autonomy, and beliefs about unnecessary testing. Patients thought that blood tests were important, powerful and inexpensive, and cost information could place doctors under additional pressure. CONCLUSION: The findings identify predominantly positive beliefs about testing and negative attitudes to the use of financial costs in the decision-making of hospital doctors. Public discussion and education about the possible overuse of common tests may allow more resources to be allocated to evidence-based healthcare, by reducing the perception that such strategies to improve healthcare efficiency negatively impact on quality of care.
  • Mortality and Institutionalization After Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Parkinson's Disease and Related Conditions.

    Skelly, Robert; Brown, Lisa (2020-06)
    Background: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) can facilitate feeding and medication administration in dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Information on survival, institutionalization, and complications post PEG might inform feeding decisions. Method: A total of 93 patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders were identified by review of PEG registers and by searching the administrative databases in 2 large UK university hospitals (2005-2017); 83 case notes were available for retrospective review. Care processes and outcomes were assessed. Results: The following were the diagnoses: 58 (70%) had Parkinson's disease, 10 (12%) had progressive supranuclear palsy, 5 (6%) had multiple system atrophy, 3 (4%) had dementia with Lewy bodies, and 7 (8%) had vascular parkinsonism. The median age was 78 years (interquartile range 72-82); 29 (35%) were women. Care processes included a future care plan in place prior to admission for 18 patients (22%), and PEG was placed during emergency admission in 68 patients (82%). The outcomes included median survival at 422 days; 30-day mortality rate was 6% (5 patients); and of 56 patients admitted from home, 18 (32%) were discharged to institutions (nursing or care homes). The most common complication was aspiration pneumonia for 18 (22%) of patients. Age, sex, diagnosis, admission type, comorbidities, and place of residence did not predict survival. Discharge to own home and follow-up by the home enteral feeding team were associated with longer survival. Conclusion: We recommend markers of advanced disease should prompt advanced care planning. Discussions about PEG feeding should include information about post-PEG survival, complications, and risk of institutionalization. Further research is needed on quality-of-life post PEG and ways to reduce aspiration pneumonia. All PEG patients should have nutrition team follow-up.
  • Prehospital Transdermal Glyceryl Trinitrate for Ultra-Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Data From the RIGHT-2 Trial.

    England, Tim (2019-11)
    Background and Purpose- Pilot trials suggest that glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; nitroglycerin) may improve outcome when administered early after stroke onset. Methods- We undertook a multicentre, paramedic-delivered, ambulance-based, prospective randomized, sham-controlled, blinded-end point trial in adults with presumed stroke within 4 hours of ictus. Participants received transdermal GTN (5 mg) or a sham dressing (1:1) in the ambulance and then daily for three days in hospital. The primary outcome was the 7-level modified Rankin Scale at 90 days assessed by central telephone treatment-blinded follow-up. This prespecified subgroup analysis focuses on participants with an intracerebral hemorrhage as their index event. Analyses are intention-to-treat. Results- Of 1149 participants with presumed stroke, 145 (13%; GTN, 74; sham, 71) had an intracerebral hemorrhage: time from onset to randomization median, 74 minutes (interquartile range, 45-110). By admission to hospital, blood pressure tended to be lower with GTN as compared with sham: mean, 4.4/3.5 mm Hg. The modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days was nonsignificantly higher in the GTN group: adjusted common odds ratio for poor outcome, 1.87 (95% CI, 0.98-3.57). A prespecified global analysis of 5 clinical outcomes (dependency, disability, cognition, quality of life, and mood) was worse with GTN; Mann-Whitney difference, 0.18 (95% CI, 0.01-0.35; Wei-Lachin test). GTN was associated with larger hematoma and growth, and more mass effect and midline shift on neuroimaging, and altered use of hospital resources. Death in hospital but not at day 90 was increased with GTN. There were no significant between-group differences in serious adverse events. Conclusions- Prehospital treatment with GTN worsened outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Since these results could relate to the play of chance, confounding, or a true effect of GTN, further randomized evidence on the use of vasodilators in ultra-acute intracerebral hemorrhage is needed. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN26986053.
  • Implementing clinical guidelines into practice: The Osteoarthritis Self-management and Independent-living Support (OASIS) group-A service evaluation.

    Roberts, S; Busby, E (2020-04)
    INTRODUCTION: Arthritis is a common diagnosis for people presenting to healthcare reporting joint pain and stiffness. It is estimated that around 10 million people in the United Kingdom are thought to have arthritis. National Guidance states that patients with osteoarthritis should be offered three core treatments: information, exercise and weight loss advice. The Osteoarthritis Self-management and Independent-living Support (OASIS) group is a programme of progressive exercise and educational advice. METHODS: This service evaluation was to determine if the OASIS group was improving functional and reported pain-level outcomes of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis between 2016 and 2018. Routinely collected data were analysed to determine its effects on a number of functional and self-reported outcomes. Ethical approval was not required following local National Health Service (NHS) Trust approval (Reference e2020-08). RESULTS: During the 3-year period of the review between 2016 and 2018, a total of 339 patients were invited to attend the OASIS group. A total of 196 (57.8%) patients improved their overall pain score. Of the patients who attended all six sessions, 96.7% (174) improved in at least one of the functional outcome measures, and 90% (162) improved in at least two functional outcomes. CONCLUSION: On evaluation of the OASIS group, it has shown to be effective at improving pain and functional performance of patients with lower limb osteoarthritis, whilst remaining cost-effective. In comparison with other similar initiatives, the results are comparable, and it is implemented over a shorter time period, enhancing the cost-effectiveness for the NHS.
  • A meta-analysis of remote ischaemic conditioning in experimental stroke.

    England, Tim (2020-06)
    Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) is achieved by repeated transient ischaemia of a distant organ/limb and is neuroprotective in experimental ischaemic stroke. However, the optimal time and methods of administration are unclear. Systematic review identified relevant preclinical studies; two authors independently extracted data on infarct volume, neurological deficit, RIC method (administration time, site, cycle number, length of limb occlusion (dose)), species and quality. Data were analysed using random effects models; results expressed as standardised mean difference (SMD). In 57 publications incorporating 99 experiments (1406 rats, 101 mice, 14 monkeys), RIC reduced lesion volume in transient (SMD -2.0; 95% CI -2.38, -1.61; p < 0.00001) and permanent (SMD -1.54; 95% CI -2.38, -1.61; p < 0.00001) focal models of ischaemia and improved neurological deficit (SMD -1.63; 95% CI -1.97, -1.29, p < 0.00001). In meta-regression, cycle length and number, dose and limb number did not interact with infarct volume, although country and physiological monitoring during anaesthesia did. In all studies, RIC was ineffective if the dose was <10 or ≥50 min. Median study quality was 7 (range 4-9/10); Egger's test suggested publication bias (p < 0.001). RIC is most effective in experimental stroke using a dose between 10 and 45 min. Further studies using repeated dosing in animals with co-morbidities are warranted.
  • Who seeks physiotherapy or exercise treatment for hip and knee osteoarthritis? A cross-sectional analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Smith, Benjamin (2019-02)
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics of individuals with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis who are recommended to seek physiotherapy or exercise treatment, and to explore which people are more or less likely to follow such recommendations. METHODS: All data were obtained from Wave 4 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort (2008-2009), a prospectively collected community-based dataset. Eligibility was justified by a patient-reported diagnosis of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis with a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score of 1 or above. Data were collected from a self-completed questionnaire and nurse assessment visit. Prevalence of being recommended to physiotherapy or exercise (or not) and then the actioning of this recommendation (or not) were calculated and presented as 95% confidence intervals (CI). Data on characteristics of those recommended (or not) were explored using univariate analyses and then a forward selection logistic regression model. RESULTS: In total, 1262 and 1877 individuals with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis pain were analyzed. This included 41% (95% CI: 0.38-0.44) who had been recommended to seek physiotherapy or exercise treatment. Subsequently, 83% of those recommended sought these treatments. Individuals who presented with isolated knee pain, those who reported "fair" self-reported general health and were younger had a greater chance of being recommended for physiotherapy or exercise treatment, respectively (P ≤ 0.02). CONCLUSION: Encouragement should be given to formal and informal care providers of older people to highlight this inequality. This may then improve current and future access to evidence-based treatments for this population.
  • Remote Ischemic Conditioning After Stroke Trial 2: A Phase IIb Randomized Controlled Trial in Hyperacute Stroke.

    England, Tim (2019-12)
    Background Repeated episodes of limb ischemia and reperfusion (remote ischemic conditioning [RIC]) may protect the brain from ischemic reperfusion injury. Methods and Results We performed a phase IIb blinded dose-escalation sham-controlled trial in patients with hyperacute stroke, randomized 1:1 to receive RIC (four 5-minute cycles) or sham to the nonparetic upper limb, in 3 blocks of increasing dose, starting within 6 hours of ictus. The primary outcome was trial feasibility (recruitment, attrition). Secondary outcomes included adherence, tolerability, safety (serious adverse events), plasma biomarkers at days 1 and 4 (S100-ß protein, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and neuron-specific enolase), and functional outcome. Sixty participants were recruited from 2 centers (3 per month) with no loss to follow-up: time to randomization 4 hours 5 minutes (SD 72 minutes), age 72 years (12), men 60%, blood pressure 154/80 mm Hg (25/12), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 8.4 (6.9), and 55% thrombolyzed. RIC was well tolerated with adherence not differing between RIC and sham, falling in both groups on day 3 (P=0.001, repeated measures ANOVA) because of discharge or transfer. S100ß increased in the sham group (mean rise 111 pg/mL [302], P=0.041, repeated measures ANCOVA) but not the RIC group. There were no differences in matrix metalloproteinase-9, neuron-specific enolase, number with serious adverse events (RIC 10 versus sham 10, P=0.81), deaths (2 versus 4, P=0.36), or modified Rankin Scale score (2 [interquartile range 1-4], 2 [interquartile range, 1-3]; P=0.85). Conclusions RIC in hyperacute stroke is feasible when given twice daily for 2 days and appears safe in a small population with hyperacute stroke. A larger phase III trial is warranted. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02779712.
  • A loaded self-managed exercise programme for patellofemoral pain: a mixed methods feasibility study.

    Smith, Benjamin; Bateman, Marcus (2019-03)
    BACKGROUND: A novel loaded self-managed exercise programme that includes pain education and self-management strategies may result in better outcomes for people with patellofemoral pain (PFP). However, establishing program feasibility is an essential first step before testing efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a definitive RCT which will evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a loaded self-managed exercise programme for people with PFP compared with usual physiotherapy. METHODS: In a mixed methods, pragmatic, randomised controlled feasibility study, 60 participants with PFP (57% female; mean age 29 years) were recruited from a physiotherapy clinic within a large UK teaching hospital. They were randomly allocated to receive either a loaded self-managed exercise programme (n = 30) or usual physiotherapy (n = 30). Feasibility indicators of process, resources, and management were collected through follow-up of standardised questionnaires six months after recruitment and semi-structured interviews with 20 participants and physiotherapists. RESULTS: Recruitment rate was 5 participants per month; consent rate was 99%; adherence to intervention appointments was 87%; completeness of questionnaire data was 100%; and adherence to intervention delivery was 95%. Three exercise diaries were returned at six months (5%). At six months, 25 questionnaire booklets were returned (9 in the loaded self-managed group, 16 in the usual physiotherapy group), with a total retention rate of 42%. At six months, 56% (5/9) of respondents in the loaded self-managed group and 56% (9/16) in the usual physiotherapy group were classified as 'recovered'. Both groups demonstrated improvements in average pain (VAS), kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing, general self-efficacy and EQ-5D-5 L from baseline to six months. CONCLUSION: The results of this feasibility study confirm that it is feasible and acceptable to deliver a loaded self-managed exercise programme to adults with PFP in an NHS physiotherapy outpatient setting. However, between group differences in lost to follow up and poor exercise diary completion mean we are uncertain on vsome feasibility aspects. These methodological issues need addressing prior to vconducting a definitive RCT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 35272486 . Registered 19th December 2016.
  • Short-term preoperative high-intensity interval training does not improve fitness of colorectal cancer patients.

    Boereboom, CL; Blackwell, James; Williams, John P; Phillips, Bethan; Lund, Jonathan (2019-05)
    BACKGROUND: Preoperative cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients has been shown to affect postoperative outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving fitness in preoperative CRC patients within the 31-day cancer waiting time targets imposed in the UK. METHODS: Eighteen CRC patients (13 males, mean age: 67 years (range: 52-77 years) participated in supervised HIIT on cycle ergometers 3 or 4 times each week prior to surgery. Exercise intensity during 5x1-minute HIIT intervals (interspersed with 90-seconds recovery) was 100-120% maximum wattage achieved at a baseline cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). CPET before and after HIIT was used to assess CRF. RESULTS: Patients completed a mean of 8 HIIT sessions (range 6-14) over 19 days (SD 7). There was no significant increase in VO2 peak (23.9±7.0 vs. 24.2±7.8 ml/kg/min (mean±SD), p=0.58) or anaerobic threshold (AT: 14.0±3.4 vs. 14.5±4.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.50) after HIIT. There was a significant reduction in resting systolic blood pressure (152±19 vs. 142±19 mmHg, p=0.0005) and heart rate at submaximal exercise intensities after HIIT. CONCLUSIONS: Our pragmatic HIIT exercise protocol did not improve the preoperative fitness of CRC patients within the 31-day window available in the UK to meet cancer surgical waiting time targets.
  • Who seeks physiotherapy or exercise treatment for hip and knee osteoarthritis? A cross-sectional analysis of the english longitudinal study of age cohort.

    Smith, Benjamin (2019-02)
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics of individuals with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis who are recommended to seek physiotherapy or exercise treatment, and to explore which people are more or less likely to follow such recommendations. METHODS: All data were obtained from Wave 4 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort (2008-2009), a prospectively collected community-based dataset. Eligibility was justified by a patient-reported diagnosis of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis with a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score of 1 or above. Data were collected from a self-completed questionnaire and nurse assessment visit. Prevalence of being recommended to physiotherapy or exercise (or not) and then the actioning of this recommendation (or not) were calculated and presented as 95% confidence intervals (CI). Data on characteristics of those recommended (or not) were explored using univariate analyses and then a forward selection logistic regression model. RESULTS: In total, 1262 and 1877 individuals with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis pain were analyzed. This included 41% (95% CI: 0.38-0.44) who had been recommended to seek physiotherapy or exercise treatment. Subsequently, 83% of those recommended sought these treatments. Individuals who presented with isolated knee pain, those who reported "fair" self-reported general health and were younger had a greater chance of being recommended for physiotherapy or exercise treatment, respectively (P ≤ 0.02). CONCLUSION: Encouragement should be given to formal and informal care providers of older people to highlight this inequality. This may then improve current and future access to evidence-based treatments for this population.
  • A case of asymptomatic hyperkalaemia

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar (2018-02)
  • Current physiotherapy practice in the management of tennis elbow: A service evaluation

    Salt, Emma (2018-02)
    BACKGROUND: Tennis elbow is a common painful condition that may affect daily function and ability to work. Physiotherapy is the most commonly used primary intervention but there is a wide range of treatment options within the umbrella of physiotherapy. Our aim was to report on the treatments that are currently used by physiotherapists in a UK National Health Service (NHS) setting.METHODS: A retrospective service evaluation was conducted at two NHS hospital trusts by reviewing patient attendance records over a 1-year period. All patients with tennis elbow were included, except those referred for postoperative rehabilitation. Patient notes were analysed using a predefined assessment template. RESULTS: A total of 65 patient records were identified, with patients having a mean age 48 years and mean symptom duration of 5.4 months. The mean treatment duration was 64 days, over 3.7 sessions. The most commonly used treatments were education and exercise, although the type and dosing of exercise varied greatly. Passive modalities such as ice, taping, manual therapy, acupuncture and electrotherapy were still used. CONCLUSIONS:Wide variations in treatment approaches were identified. There was no consistency in the choice of modality used, the type of exercise or the dose of exercise prescribed. The use of passive modalities and corticosteroid injections was found to remain commonplace, despite a lack of supporting research evidence. There is a clear need for evidence-based guidance for physiotherapists treating patients with tennis elbow.

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