• A questionnaire survey comparing the educational priorities of patients and medical students in the management of multiple sclerosis.

      Gibson, Jeremy; Fakis, Apostolos (2014-12)
      OBJECTIVE: To compare the educational priorities patients and students raise concerning the management of multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN/SETTING: A single-centre comparative questionnaire survey conducted in a foundation trust hospital which provides teaching for one UK medical school. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 255 people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) and 125 final year medical students attending a mandatory module were invited to participate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaires were developed and piloted for thisstudy and analysed on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health terminology. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 125 (50%) pwMS (age range 36-86 years; median 58) and 96 (77%) medical students (age range 22-37 years; median 23). The most commonly reported priority listed by people with MS and students concerned 'environmental contextual factors' (95.5% and 99%, respectively). PwMS focused primarily on the 'social and attitudinal aspects' of the environment (53.6%), while students expressed greater interest in the use of medications (91.7%) and investigations (14.6%) (p < 0.001). People with greater psychological or physical impact of the condition were more likely to prioritise 'health condition' topics. CONCLUSIONS: PwMS and medical students identify different topics when asked to list aspects of management of MS which they deem to be important for medical student teaching. These differences in educational priorities should be taken into consideration when teaching students about MS. The findings may also apply to other long-term neurological conditions and warrant further investigation.
    • A randomised controlled feasibility study investigating the use of eccentric and concentric strengthening exercises in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy.

      Bateman, Marcus (2014-01)
      OBJECTIVES: To conduct a feasibility study to compare concentric and eccentric rotator cuff strengthening exercises for rotator cuff tendinopathy. METHODS: A total of 11 patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy who were on the waiting list for arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery were randomised to perform eccentric rotator cuff strengthening exercises, concentric strengthening exercises or no exercises. Patients were evaluated in terms of levels of pain and function using the Oxford Shoulder Score and a Visual Analogue Scale initially, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. RESULTS: The study design was found to be acceptable to patients and achieved a high level of 86% compliance. The drop-out rate was 0%. Two patients performing eccentric strengthening exercises improved sufficiently to cancel their planned surgery. CONCLUSION: Further research in this area is recommended. The study design was feasible and power calculations have been conducted to aid future research planning.
    • Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in tremulous parkinsonian patients: A blinded video study

      Bajaj, Nin; Gontu, Vamsi; Birchall, James (2010-11)
      Background: This study examines the clinical accuracy of movement disorder specialists in distinguishing tremor dominant Parkinson's disease (TDPD) from other tremulous movement disorders by the use of standardised patient videos. Patients and methods: Two movement disorder specialists were asked to distinguish TDPD from patients with atypical tremor and dystonic tremor, who had no evidence of presynaptic dopaminergic deficit (subjects without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDDs)) according to ¹²³I-N-ω-fluoro-propyl- 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ([¹²³I] FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), by ‘blinded’ video analysis in 38 patients. A diagnosis of parkinsonism was made if the step 1 criteria of the Queen Square Brain Bank criteria for Parkinson's disease were fulfilled. The reviewer diagnosis was compared with the working clinical diagnosis drawn from the medical history, SPECT scan result, long term follow-up and in some cases the known response to dopaminergic medications. This comparison allowed a calculation for false positive and false negative rate of diagnosis of PD. Results: High false positive (17.4-26.1%) and negative (6.7-20%) rates were found for the diagnosis of PD. The diagnostic distinction of TDPD from dystonic tremor was reduced by the presence of dystonic features in treated and untreated PD patients. Conclusion: Clinical distinction of TDPD from atypical tremor, monosymptomatic rest tremor and dystonic tremor can be difficult due to the presence of parkinsonian features in tremulous SWEDD patients. The diagnosis of bradykinesia was particularly challenging. This study highlights the difficulty of differentiation of some cases of SWEDD from PD.
    • An update of stabilisation exercises for low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

      Smith, Benjamin (2014-12)
      BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) is a large and costly problem. It has a lifetime prevalence of 80% and results in high levels of healthcare cost. It is a major cause for long term sickness amongst the workforce and is associated with high levels of fear avoidance and kinesiophobia. Stabilisation (or 'core stability') exercises have been suggested to reduce symptoms of pain and disability and form an effective treatment. Despite it being the most commonly used form of physiotherapy treatment within the UK there is a lack of positive evidence to support its use. The aims of this systematic review update is to investigate the effectiveness of stabilisation exercises for the treatment of NSLBP, and compare any effectiveness to other forms of exercise. METHODS: A systematic review published in 2008 was updated with a search of PubMed, CINAHL, AMED, Pedro and The Cochrane Library, October 2006 to October 2013. Two authors independently selected studies, and two authors independently extracted the data. Methodological quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Meta-analysis was carried out when appropriate. RESULTS: 29 studies were included: 22 studies (n = 2,258) provided post treatment effect on pain and 24 studies (n = 2,359) provided post treatment effect on disability. Pain and disability scores were transformed to a 0 to 100 scale. Meta-analysis showed significant benefit for stabilisation exercises versus any alternative treatment or control for long term pain and disability with mean difference of -6.39 (95% CI -10.14 to -2.65) and -3.92 (95% CI -7.25 to -0.59) respectively. The difference between groups was clinically insignificant. When compared with alternative forms of exercise, there was no statistical or clinically significant difference. Mean difference for pain was -3.06 (95% CI -6.74 to 0.63) and disability -1.89 (95% CI -5.10 to 1.33). CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence stabilisation exercises are not more effective than any other form of active exercise in the long term. The low levels of heterogeneity and large number of high methodological quality of available studies, at long term follow-up, strengthen our current findings, and further research is unlikely to considerably alter this conclusion.
    • Anticholinergic Drug Burden Tools/Scales and Adverse Outcomes in Different Clinical Settings: A Systematic Review of Reviews.

      Gordon, Adam (2018-05)
      BACKGROUND: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure (anticholinergic burden) has been linked to a number of adverse outcomes. To conduct research in this area, an agreed approach to describing anticholinergic burden is needed. OBJECTIVE: This review set out to identify anticholinergic burden scales, to describe their rationale, the settings in which they have been used and the outcomes associated with them.METHODS: A search was performed using the Healthcare Databases Advanced Search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL and PsycINFO from inception to October 2016 to identify systematic reviews describing anticholinergic burden scales or tools. Abstracts and titles were reviewed to determine eligibility for review with eligible articles read in full. The final selection of reviews was critically appraised using the ROBIS tool and pre-defined data were extracted; the primary data of interest were the anticholinergic burden scales or tools used. RESULTS: Five reviews were identified for analysis containing a total of 62 original articles. Eighteen anticholinergic burden scales or tools were identified with variation in their derivation, content and how they quantified the anticholinergic activity of medications. The Drug Burden Index was the most commonly used scale or tool in community and database studies, while the Anticholinergic Risk Scale was used more frequently in care homes and hospital settings. The association between anticholinergic burden and clinical outcomes varied by index and study. Falls and hospitalisation were consistently found to be associated with anticholinergic burden. Mortality, delirium, physical function and cognition were not consistently associated. CONCLUSIONS: Anticholinergic burden scales vary in their rationale, use and association with outcomes. This review showed that the concept of anticholinergic burden has been variably defined and inconsistently described using a number of indices with different content and scoring. The association between adverse outcomes and anticholinergic burden varies between scores and has not been conclusively established.
    • Behavioural Activation Therapy for Depression after Stroke (BEADS): a study protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled pilot trial of a psychological intervention for post-stroke depression.

      England, Tim (2016-08)
      BACKGROUND: There is currently insufficient evidence for the clinical and cost-effectiveness of psychological therapies for treating post-stroke depression. METHODS/DESIGN: BEADS is a parallel group feasibility multicentre randomised controlled trial with nested qualitative research and economic evaluation. The aim is to evaluate the feasibility of undertaking a full trial comparing behavioural activation (BA) to usual stroke care for 4 months for patients with post-stroke depression. We aim to recruit 72 patients with post-stroke depression over 12 months at three centres, with patients identified from the National Health Service (NHS) community and acute services and from the voluntary sector. They will be randomly allocated to receive behavioural activation in addition to usual care or usual care alone. Outcomes will be measured at 6 months after randomisation for both participants and their carers, to determine their effectiveness. The primary clinical outcome measure for the full trial will be the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Rates of consent, recruitment and follow-up by centre and randomised group will be reported. The acceptability of the intervention to patients, their carers and therapists will also be assessed using qualitative interviews. The economic evaluation will be undertaken from the National Health Service and personal social service perspective, with a supplementary analysis from the societal perspective. A value of information analysis will be completed to identify the areas in which future research will be most valuable. DISCUSSION: The feasibility outcomes from this trial will provide the data needed to inform the design of a definitive multicentre randomised controlled trial evaluating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of behavioural activation for treating post-stroke depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current controlled trials ISRCTN12715175.
    • Bone health in multiple sclerosis.

      Gibson, Jeremy; Summers, Greg (2011-12)
      People who are disabled with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be at increased risk of osteoporosis. This review discusses issues relevant to bone health in MS and makes practical recommendations regarding prevention and screening for osteoporosis and fracture risk in MS. A search of the literature up until 5 April 2011 was performed using key search terms, and articles pertinent to bone health in MS were analysed. Bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced at the lumbar spine, hip and total body in MS, with the degree of reduction being greatest at the hip. A strong relationship exists between the disability level, measured by the Expanded Disability Status Score, and BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, particularly the latter. The rate of loss of BMD also correlates with the level of disability. Pulsed corticosteroids for acute episodes of MS, even with a high cumulative steroid dose, do not significantly affect BMD, but an effect on fracture risk is yet to be elucidated. There appears to be no correlation between vitamin D levels and BMD, and the relationship between disability and vitamin D levels remains unclear. Falls and fractures are more common than in healthy controls, and the risk rises with increasing levels of disability. The principal factor resulting in low BMD and increased fracture risk in MS is immobility. Antiresorptive therapy with bisphosphonates and optimising vitamin D levels are likely to be effective interventions although there are no randomised studies of this therapy.
    • Cannabidiol protects an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier from oxygen-glucose deprivation via PPARγ and 5-HT1A receptors.

      England, Tim (2016-03)
      BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated a protective effect of cannabidiol (CBD) in reducing infarct size in stroke models and against epithelial barrier damage in numerous disease models. We aimed to investigate whether CBD also affects blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability following ischaemia. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) and human astrocyte co-cultures modelled the BBB. Ischaemia was modelled by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and permeability was measured by transepithelial electrical resistance. KEY RESULTS: CBD (10 μM) prevented the increase in permeability caused by 4 h OGD. CBD was most effective when administered before the OGD, but protective effects were observed up to 2 h into reperfusion. This protective effect was inhibited by a PPARγ antagonist and partly reduced by a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, but was unaffected by antagonists of cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors, TRPV1 channels or adenosine A2A receptors. CBD also reduced cell damage, as measured by LDH release and by markers of cellular adhesion, such as the adhesion molecule VCAM-1. In HBMEC monocultures, CBD decreased VCAM-1 and increased VEGF levels, effects which were inhibited by PPARγ antagonism. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data suggest that preventing permeability changes at the BBB could represent an as yet unrecognized mechanism of CBD-induced neuroprotection in ischaemic stroke, a mechanism mediated by activation of PPARγ and 5-HT1A receptors.
    • A case of asymptomatic hyperkalaemia

      Mukherjee, Bhaskar (2018-02)
    • Current management strategies for patellofemoral pain: an online survey of 99 practising UK physiotherapists.

      Smith, Benjamin; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus; Moffatt, Fiona (2017-05)
      BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is considered one of the commonest forms of knee pain. This study aimed to identify how physiotherapists in the Unitedv Kingdom (UK) currently manage patellofemoral pain (PFP), particularly in relation to exercise prescription, and response to pain. METHODS: An anonymous survey was designed with reference to previous surveys and recent systematic reviews. Practising UK physiotherapists who treat patients with PFP were invited to take part via an invitation email sent through professional networks, the 'interactive Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (iCSP)' message board, and social media (Twitter). Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: A total of 99 surveys were completed. Responders reported a wide range of management strategies, including a broad selection of type and dose of exercise prescription. The five most common management strategies chosen were: closed chain strengthening exercises (98%); education and advice (96%); open chain strengthening exercises (76%); taping (70%) and stretches (65%). Physiotherapists with a special interest in treating PFP were statistically more likely to manage patients with orthotics (P = 0.02) and bracing (P = 0.01) compared to physiotherapists without a special interest. Approximately 55% would not prescribe an exercise if it was painful. Thirty-one percent of physiotherapists would advise patients not to continue with leisure and/or sporting activity if they experienced any pain. CONCLUSION: Current UK practice in the management strategies of PFP is variable. Further high quality research on which to inform physiotherapy practice is warranted for this troublesome musculoskeletal condition.
    • Current physiotherapy practice in the management of tennis elbow: A service evaluation

      Salt, Emma (2018-02)
      BACKGROUND: Tennis elbow is a common painful condition that may affect daily function and ability to work. Physiotherapy is the most commonly used primary intervention but there is a wide range of treatment options within the umbrella of physiotherapy. Our aim was to report on the treatments that are currently used by physiotherapists in a UK National Health Service (NHS) setting.METHODS: A retrospective service evaluation was conducted at two NHS hospital trusts by reviewing patient attendance records over a 1-year period. All patients with tennis elbow were included, except those referred for postoperative rehabilitation. Patient notes were analysed using a predefined assessment template. RESULTS: A total of 65 patient records were identified, with patients having a mean age 48 years and mean symptom duration of 5.4 months. The mean treatment duration was 64 days, over 3.7 sessions. The most commonly used treatments were education and exercise, although the type and dosing of exercise varied greatly. Passive modalities such as ice, taping, manual therapy, acupuncture and electrotherapy were still used. CONCLUSIONS:Wide variations in treatment approaches were identified. There was no consistency in the choice of modality used, the type of exercise or the dose of exercise prescribed. The use of passive modalities and corticosteroid injections was found to remain commonplace, despite a lack of supporting research evidence. There is a clear need for evidence-based guidance for physiotherapists treating patients with tennis elbow.
    • Current physiotherapy practice in the management of tennis elbow: A service evaluation.

      Salt, Emma (2018-02)
      Tennis elbow is a common painful condition that may affect daily function and ability to work. Physiotherapy is the most commonly used primary intervention but there is a wide range of treatment options within the umbrella of physiotherapy. Our aim was to report on the treatments that are currently used by physiotherapists in a UK National Health Service (NHS) setting. A retrospective service evaluation was conducted at two NHS hospital trusts by reviewing patient attendance records over a 1-year period. All patients with tennis elbow were included, except those referred for postoperative rehabilitation. Patient notes were analysed using a predefined assessment template. A total of 65 patient records were identified, with patients having a mean age 48 years and mean symptom duration of 5.4 months. The mean treatment duration was 64 days, over 3.7 sessions. The most commonly used treatments were education and exercise, although the type and dosing of exercise varied greatly. Passive modalities such as ice, taping, manual therapy, acupuncture and electrotherapy were still used. Wide variations in treatment approaches were identified. There was no consistency in the choice of modality used, the type of exercise or the dose of exercise prescribed. The use of passive modalities and corticosteroid injections was found to remain commonplace, despite a lack of supporting research evidence. There is a clear need for evidence-based guidance for physiotherapists treating patients with tennis elbow.
    • Current physiotherapy practice in the management of tennis elbow: A service evaluation.

      Bateman, Marcus; Whitby, E; Kacha, S (2018-02)
      BACKGROUND: Tennis elbow is a common painful condition that may affect daily function and ability to work. Physiotherapy is the most commonly used primary intervention but there is a wide range of treatment options within the umbrella of physiotherapy. Our aim was to report on the treatments that are currently used by physiotherapists in a UK National Health Service (NHS) setting. METHODS: A retrospective service evaluation was conducted at two NHS hospital trusts by reviewing patient attendance records over a 1-year period. All patients with tennis elbow were included, except those referred for postoperative rehabilitation. Patient notes were analysed using a predefined assessment template. RESULTS: A total of 65 patient records were identified, with patients having a mean age 48 years and mean symptom duration of 5.4 months. The mean treatment duration was 64 days, over 3.7 sessions. The most commonly used treatments were education and exercise, although the type and dosing of exercise varied greatly. Passive modalities such as ice, taping, manual therapy, acupuncture and electrotherapy were still used. CONCLUSIONS: Wide variations in treatment approaches were identified. There was no consistency in the choice of modality used, the type of exercise or the dose of exercise prescribed. The use of passive modalities and corticosteroid injections was found to remain commonplace, despite a lack of supporting research evidence. There is a clear need for evidence-based guidance for physiotherapists treating patients with tennis elbow.
    • Current preoperative physiotherapy management strategies for patients awaiting Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR): A worldwide survey of physiotherapy practice

      Carter, Hayley; Smith, Benjamin (2021-01)
      Background: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are the most common ligament injury to the knee with surgical reconstruction considered standard treatment. This study aimed to explore the current physiotherapy management strategies used during the preoperative phase of rehabilitation for patients awaiting anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Methods: An anonymous survey was disseminated online via Twitter and the 'interactive Chartered Society of Physiotherapy' message board. Practising physiotherapists who treated at least one patient prior to ACLR in the past year were invited to take part. Responses were collected over a 4-week period in March 2020. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: In total, 183 respondents replied; 122 completed the full survey. Responses were collected from 20 countries across 3 settings, NHS/public health services, private and sports. Most respondents reported prescribing exercises, advice and education to patients during prehabilitation. Up to 40% also utilised passive treatments including manual therapy, taping/bracing and electrotherapy. The frequency of recommended exercise completion and length of treatment varied. Most respondents (n = 103/84.4%) felt that many patients waiting for ACLR did not receive prehabilitation. Many physiotherapists reported that patients expressed concerns regarding their readiness for surgery (n = 61/50%) and return to preinjury levels of physical activity (n = 112/91.8%). Almost all respondents would discuss non-operative management with patients (n = 112/91.8%) if they had returned to their preinjury level of physical activity before their ACLR. Conclusion: Overall, this survey provides some insight as to how physiotherapists manage patients awaiting ACLR. Areas of uncertainty in physiotherapy practice have also been highlighted that require further high-quality research.
    • Delayed administration of dopaminergic drugs is not associated with prolonged length of stay of hospitalized patients with Parkinson's disease.

      Skelly, Robert; Brown, Lisa (2016-11)
      BACKGROUND: Punctual delivery of dopaminergic medication to Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may be important in optimizing disease control. We tested the hypothesis that prompt delivery of l-dopa medications to emergency hospital inpatients was associated with a decreased length of stay in hospital. METHODS: The study population consisted of all urgent hospitalizations for patients with a diagnosis of PD to the Royal Derby Hospital over a two-year period. Data were extracted on timing of delivery of drugs, number of co-morbidities and length of stay. Statistical analysis used linear regression adjusting for within admission clustering. RESULTS: 431 individuals provided data from a total of 737 admissions. 39% of scheduled l-dopa doses were either not given or administered over 30 min later than the scheduled time. There was no association between the omission or timing of a dose of PD medication and length of stay in hospital. The number of coded diagnoses was strongly associated with length of stay with a dose-response association (pTREND<0.001). Those with 10 concurrent diagnoses had a 11 day longer stay (95% confidence intervals: +2 to +21) than those with no comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed administration of dopaminergic drugs is not associated with prolonged length of stay of in patients with PD who were admitted to hospital as an emergency. However, the number of co-existing medical diagnoses was associated with length of stay, and early attention to these has the potential to improve patient care and decrease length of stay in hospital.
    • Does a specialist unit improve outcomes for hospitalized patients with Parkinson's disease?

      Skelly, Robert; Brown, Lisa; Fakis, Apostolos; Kimber, Lindsey; Downes, Charlotte; Lindop, Fiona; Johnson, Clare; Bartliff, Caroline; Bajaj, Nin (2014-11)
      OBJECTIVE: Suboptimal management of Parkinson's disease (PD) medication in hospital may lead to avoidable complications. We introduced an in-patient PD unit for those admitted urgently with general medical problems. We explored the effect of the unit on medication management, length of stay and patient experience. METHODS: We conducted a single-center prospective feasibility study. The unit's core features were defined following consultation with patients and professionals: specially trained staff, ready availability of PD drugs, guidelines, and care led by a geriatrician with specialty PD training. Mandatory staff training comprised four 1 h sessions: PD symptoms; medications; therapy; communication and swallowing. Most medication was prescribed using an electronic Prescribing and Administration system (iSOFT) which provided accurate data on time of administration. We compared patient outcomes before and after introduction of the unit. RESULTS: The general ward care (n = 20) and the Specialist Parkinson's Unit care (n = 24) groups had similar baseline characteristics. On the specialist unit: less Parkinson's medication was omitted (13% vs 20%, p < 0.001); of the medication that was given, more was given on time (64% vs 50%, p < 0.001); median length of stay was shorter (9 days vs 13 days, p = 0.043) and patients' experience of care was better (p = 0.01). DISCUSSION: If replicated and generalizable to other hospitals, reductions in length of stay would lead to significant cost savings. The apparent improved outcomes with Parkinson's unit care merit further investigation. We hope to test the hypothesis that specialized units are cost-effective and improve patient care using a randomized controlled trial design.
    • DrivAbility: teaching medical aspects of driving.

      Gibson, Jeremy; Whiteman, Leo (2012-06)
      CONTEXT: Teaching medical aspects of fitness to drive (FTD) is currently inconsistent across UK medical schools, with almost one-third of UK medical schools offering no tuition on medical aspects of FTD. It is, therefore, not surprising to find that medical students and doctors tend to lack confidence regarding the medical aspects of FTD and Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) medical standards. INNOVATION: In response to this inconsistency we developed an innovative new learning module to teach our medical students the importance of giving appropriate advice to patients about driving, the role of the DVLA regarding medical aspects of FTD, how to recognise when patients should be referred to a driving assessment centre and what adaptations are available to allow patients with physical disabilities to drive safely. As far as we are aware Derby is the first centre in the world to incorporate the practical experience of driving adapted vehicles (at a driving assessment centre) into the undergraduate medical curriculum as an aid to teaching medical aspects of FTD. This practical learning module has proven popular with the students. IMPLICATIONS: Driving these adapted vehicles has allowed our students to appreciate some of the practical difficulties disabled drivers experience when learning new driving techniques. However, as only 18 driving assessment centres exist within the UK, an exact replication of this learning module will be limited elsewhere. Nevertheless, we would encourage other medical schools to evaluate the local resources that could enhance the delivery of their undergraduate curricula.
    • Effectiveness of Musculoskeletal Emergency Physiotherapy Practitioners.

      Salt, Emma (2016-08)
      Relevance and Method: The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Emergency Physiotherapy Practitioner (EPP) service against quality care indicators identified as part of the “gold standard” for emergency care in England. The study was prospective and evaluated time to initial assessment, total time in the emergency department and un-planned re-attendance rate within a seven-day period for all patients seen by the EPP’s over a period of one year. Outcomes: One thousand and seven patients were seen by EPPs in the emergency department. The median wait time for treatment by an EPP was 34.5 minutes (95th percentile = 122). Regional median wait time was 45 minutes (95th percentile = 138). National median wait time was 55 minutes (95th percentile = 192). Median total time spent in ED for patients seen by EPPs was 99 minutes (95th percentile = 224). Regional median total time in ED was 223 (95th percentile = 239). Nationally median total time in ED was 136 minutes (95th percentile = 336). Three percent of patients seen by an EPP returned to the ED, compared to 6% regionally and 7.5% nationally. Conclusions: EPPs excelled in all three indicators and exceeded regional and national figures. The re-return rate met the current standard of being less than 5%. It could be justified that the addition of the EPPs to the emergency department was an efficient and effective service development.
    • The effectiveness of preoperative rehabilitation programmes on postoperative outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction: a systematic review

      Carter, Hayley; Smith, Benjamin (2020-10)
      Background: To explore the effectiveness of preoperative rehabilitation programmes (PreHab) on postoperative physical and psychological outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Method: A systematic search was conducted from inception to November 2019. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English were included. Risk of bias was assessed using Version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment system was used to evaluate the quality of evidence. Results: The search identified 739 potentially eligible studies, three met the inclusion criteria. All included RCTs scored 'high' risk of bias. PreHab in all three RCTs was an exercise programme, each varied in content (strength, control, balance and perturbation training), frequency (10 to 24 sessions) and length (3.1- to 6-weeks). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were reported for quadriceps strength (one RCT) and single leg hop scores (two RCTs) in favour of PreHab three months after ACLR, compared to no PreHab. One RCT reported no statistically significant between-group difference for pain and function. No RCT evaluated post-operative psychological outcomes. Conclusion: Very low quality evidence suggests that PreHab that includes muscular strength, balance and perturbation training offers a small benefit to quadriceps strength and single leg hop scores three months after ACLR compared with no PreHab. There is no consensus on the optimum PreHab programme content, frequency and length. Further research is needed to develop PreHab programmes that consider psychosocial factors and the measurement of relevant post-operative outcomes such as psychological readiness and return to sport. Trial registration: PROSPERO trial registration number. CRD42020162754 .