Recent Submissions

  • Acute effects of physical activity on cognitive function in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Groom, Madeleine J. (2022)
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents, is typically managed with medications which are associated with negative side effects. Therefore, non-pharmacological treatments, such as physical activity, are an attractive option. The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the effects of acute physical activity on cognition in children and adolescents with ADHD. A comprehensive search of three literature databases yielded 14 studies for inclusion. An overall meta-analysis was conducted alongside sub-group analyses for cognitive domain, physical activity characteristics, and timing of cognitive measurements. Results revealed a small beneficial effect of physical activity on cognitive function (SMD = 0.18, [0.12,0.25], p < 0.01). Sub-group analyses revealed beneficial effects of physical activity on the domains of cognitive flexibility (SMD = 0.21, [0.09,0.32], p < 0.01), attention (SMD = 0.20, [0.09,0.32], p = 0.001), and inhibitory control (SMD = 0.18, [0.03,0.33], p = 0.02), but not memory (p = 0.87). Cognitive benefits also differed depending on physical activity duration (<10 min, p = 0.27; 11–20 min, SMD = 0.23, [0.14,0.31], p < 0.01; >20 min, SMD = 0.13, [-0.00,0.26], p = 0.05), and modality (running, SMD = 0.21, [0.12,0.29], p < 0.01; ‘other’, SMD = 0.39, [0.18,0.61], p < 0.01; cycling, p = 0.35), and the timing of cognitive measurement following physical activity (immediately, SMD = 0.17, [-0.01,0.35], p = 0.06; 2–10 min, SMD = 0.21, [0.12,0.30], p < 0.01; >10 min, SMD = 0.19, [-0.09,0.47], p = 0.19). Overall, physical activity has a positive acute effect on subsequent cognition in children and adolescents with ADHD, though effects may be domain specific and influenced by the duration and modality of physical activity. These findings have practical implications for those interested in using physical activity to enhance cognition in children and adolescents with ADHD.
  • Functional somatic symptoms in preschool attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of parent training

    Daley, David (2022)
    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be more stress-vulnerable, and thereby, it has been suggested, prone to develop functional somatic symptoms (FSS) compared to their peers. In this paper, using data from 160 children aged 3-7 years with ADHD from the D'SNAPP study, a randomized controlled trial testing a parent training intervention, we addressed a number of questions about the role of FSS in ADHD. First, are FSS levels higher in an ADHD sample than in the children of the general population. Second, do FSS levels predict psychopathology and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in ADHD samples. Third, does FSS levels moderate the effect of parent training on ADHD symptoms. We found that preschoolers with ADHD experienced more severe FSS than a general population-based sample (18.80% vs. 2.11%). Severe FSS were associated with increased psychopathology and impaired daily function and lower HRQoL. Level of baseline FSS did not moderate the effect of parent training on ADHD. FSS in preschool children with ADHD is associated with impaired daily functioning, but further research is warranted to determine the clinical impact of FSS in children with ADHD.
  • Current pharmacological treatments for ADHD

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Cortese, Samuele (2022)
    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental condition associated with impaired function and increased risk of poor outcomes in children, young people and adults with the condition. Currently approved pharmacological treatments for ADHD include a range of stimulant (methylphenidate, amphetamine) and nonstimulant (atomoxetine, guanfacine, clonidine) medications. All have been shown to be effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD and improving other functional outcomes including quality of life, academic performance, rates of accidents and injuries, and do not appear to be associated with significant adverse outcomes or side effects. In this chapter, we review medications for ADHD by summarising the mechanisms of action of each of the two main classes of compounds (stimulants and nonstimulants), the formulations of the most commonly prescribed medications within each class, their efficacy in treating ADHD symptoms and other outcomes, and other factors that influence treatment decisions including side effects and tolerability, comorbidities and medical history. We conclude with a summary of the treatment decisions made by clinicians and suggest some next steps for research. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms of action of these medications and how exactly they improve symptoms, and to examine their effects on commonly occurring comorbidities.
  • The feasibility of a strategy for the remote recruitment, consenting and assessment of recent referrals: a protocol for phase 1 of the On-Line Parent Training for the Initial Management of ADHD referrals (OPTIMA)

    Daley, David; French, Blandine; Glazebrook, Cris; Groom, Madeleine J.; Hall, Charlotte L.; Sayal, Kapil (2022)
    BACKGROUND: In the UK, children with high levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention referred to clinical services with possible attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often wait a long time for specialist diagnostic assessment. Parent training (PT) has the potential to support parents during this difficult period, especially regarding the management of challenging and disruptive behaviours that often accompany ADHD. However, traditional face-to-face PT is costly and difficult to organise in a timely way. We have created a low-cost, easily accessible PT programme delivered via a phone app, Structured E-Parenting Support (STEPS), to address this problem. The overall OPTIMA programme will evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of STEPS as a way of helping parents manage their children behaviour while on the waitlist. To ensure the timely and efficient evaluation of STEPS in OPTIMA, we have worked with children's health services to implement a remote strategy for recruitment, screening and assessment of recently referred families. Part of this strategy is incorporated into routine clinical practice and part is OPTIMA specific. Here, we present the protocol for Phase 1 of OPTIMA-a study of the feasibility of this remote strategy, as a basis for a large-scale STEPS randomised controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: This is a single arm observational feasibility study. Participants will be parents of up to 100 children aged 5-11 years with high levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity, inattention and challenging behaviour who are waiting for assessment in one of five UK child and adolescent mental health or behavioural services. Recruitment, consenting and data collection will occur remotely. The primary outcome will be the rate at which the families, who meet inclusion criteria, agree in principle to take part in a full STEPS RCT. Secondary outcomes include acceptability of remote consenting and online data collection procedures; the feasibility of collecting teacher data remotely within the required timeframe, and technical difficulties with completing online questionnaires. All parents in the study will receive access to STEPS. DISCUSSION: Establishing the feasibility of our remote recruitment, consenting and assessment strategy is a pre-requisite for the full trial of OPTIMA. It can also provide a model for future trials conducted remotely.
  • The management of ADHD in children and adolescents: Bringing evidence to the clinic: Perspective from the European ADHD Guidelines Group (EAGG)

    Daley, David; Hollis, Chris P. (2021)
    ADHD is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder presenting to child and adolescent mental health, paediatric, and primary care services. Timely and effective interventions to address core ADHD symptoms and co-occurring problems are a high priority for healthcare and society more widely. While much research has reported on the benefits and adverse effects of different interventions for ADHD, these individual research reports and the reviews, meta-analyses and guidelines summarizing their findings are sometimes inconsistent and difficult to interpret. We have summarized the current evidence and identified several methodological issues and gaps in the current evidence that we believe are important for clinicians to consider when evaluating the evidence and making treatment decisions. These include understanding potential impact of bias such as inadequate blinding and selection bias on study outcomes; the relative lack of high-quality data comparing different treatments and assessing long-term effectiveness, adverse effects and safety for both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments; and the problems associated with observational studies, including those based on large national registries and comparing treatments with each other. We highlight key similarities across current international clinical guidelines and discuss the reasons for divergence where these occur. We discuss the integration of these different perspective into a framework for person/family-centered evidence-based practice approach to care that aims to achieve optimal outcomes that prioritize individual strengths and impairments, as well as the personal treatment targets of children and their families. Finally, we consider how access to care for this common and impairing disorder can be improved in different healthcare systems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: journal abstract)
  • Heart rate variability in children and adolescents with autism, ADHD and co-occurring autism and ADHD, during passive and active experimental conditions

    Bellato, Alessio; Arora, Iti; Kochhar, Puja; Hollis, Chris P.; Groom, Madeleine J. (2021)
    Despite overlaps in clinical symptomatology, autism and ADHD may be associated with opposite autonomic arousal profiles which might partly explain altered cognitive and global functioning. We investigated autonomic arousal in 106 children/adolescents with autism, ADHD, co-occurring autism/ADHD, and neurotypical controls. Heart rate variability was recorded during resting-state, a 'passive' auditory oddball task and an 'active' response conflict task. Autistic children showed hyper-arousal during the active task, while those with ADHD showed hypo-arousal during resting-state and the passive task. Irrespective of diagnosis, children characterised by hyper-arousal showed more severe autistic symptomatology, increased anxiety and reduced global functioning than those displaying hypo-arousal, suggesting the importance of considering individual autonomic arousal profiles for differential diagnosis of autism/ADHD and when developing personalised interventions.
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of altered electrophysiological markers of performance monitoring in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism

    Bellato, Alessio; Idrees, Iman; Groom, Madeleine J. (2021)
    Altered performance monitoring is implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring (error-related negativity, ERN; error positivity, Pe; feedback-related negativity, FRN; feedback-P3) in individuals with OCD, GTS, ADHD or autism compared to control participants, or associations between correlates and symptoms/traits of these conditions. Meta-analyses on 97 studies (5890 participants) showed increased ERN in OCD (Hedge's g = 0.54[CIs:0.44,0.65]) and GTS (g = 0.99[CIs:0.05,1.93]). OCD also showed increased Pe (g = 0.51[CIs:0.21,0.81]) and FRN (g = 0.50[CIs:0.26,0.73]). ADHD and autism showed reduced ERN (ADHD: g=-0.47[CIs:-0.67,-0.26]; autism: g=-0.61[CIs:-1.10,-0.13]). ADHD also showed reduced Pe (g=-0.50[CIs:-0.69,-0.32]). These findings suggest overlap in electrophysiological markers of performance monitoring alterations in four common neurodevelopmental conditions, with increased amplitudes of the markers in OCD and GTS and decreased amplitudes in ADHD and autism. Implications of these findings in terms of shared and distinct performance monitoring alterations across these neurodevelopmental conditions are discussed. PROSPERO pre-registration code: CRD42019134612.
  • The transition from children’s services to adult services for young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the CATCh-uS mixed-methods study

    Hollis, Chris P.; Sayal, Kapil (2020)
    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was previously seen as a childhood developmental disorder, so adult mental health services were not set up to support attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients who became too old for child services. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth study of the transition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients from child to adult health services in the UK. Objectives: Our objectives were to explore how many young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are in need of services as an adult, what adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder services are available and how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder stakeholders experience transition from child to adult services. Design: An interactive mixed-method design was adopted with three study streams: (1) a 12-month surveillance study with 9-month follow-up to find out how many young people required ongoing medication when they were too old for child services (929 surveys completed by children’s clinicians); (2) a mapping study to identify and describe services for young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (2686 respondents to online surveys for patients and health workers and freedom of information requests to service providers and commissioners); and (3) a qualitative study to explore key stakeholders’ experiences of transition from child to adult services (144 interviews with 64 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients, 28 parents and 52 health clinicians; 38 working in child or adult secondary health services and 14 general practitioners). Members of the public advised at each stage of the study. Results: When corrected for non-response and case ascertainment, the annual number of young people with an ongoing need for medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder lies between 270 and 599 per 100,000 people aged 17–19 years. Among 315 individuals eligible for transition, 64% were accepted, but only 22% attended their first adult services appointment. Our interactive map describes 294 unique services for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the UK, of which 44 are ‘dedicated’ attention deficit hyperactivity disorder services. Few services provide the full range of recommended provision; most focus on diagnosis and medication. Services are unevenly distributed across the UK, with nearly all ‘dedicated’ services being in England. Exploring stakeholders’ experiences revealed how invested the stakeholders are in continuing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treatment and how the architecture of services affects transition. An association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, education and continuance of medication into young adulthood, plus parent involvement and feeling prepared for transition and adult life with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, influenced investment. However, even with investment, how accessible adult services are, how patient needs fit with the remit of the adult service and the level of patient information available affect transition outcomes. The results also highlight how general practitioners can end up as care co-ordinators during transition by default. Limitations: Transition estimates were based on those who want medication, so these indicate a minimum level of need. Conclusions: Few of those who need ongoing support for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder successfully transfer to adult services, and a small proportion of those who transfer experience optimal transitional care. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder service provision is patchy. Even among ‘dedicated’ services, few provide the whole range of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence-recommended treatments. Future work: We need to evaluate various models of transitional care and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder provision, as well as develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions for young people and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • Optimising medication management in children and young people with ADHD using a computerised test (QbTest): a feasibility randomised controlled trial

    Williams, Laura; Hall, Charlotte L.; Brown, Susan S.; Guo, Boliang; James, Marilyn; Brown, Nikki; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris P.; Groom, Madeleine J. (2021)
    BACKGROUNDMedication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be closely monitored to ensure optimisation. There is growing interest in using computerised assessments of ADHD symptoms to support medication monitoring. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of one such computerised assessment, the Quantified Behavior (Qb) Test, as part of medication management for ADHD.METHODSThis feasibility multi-site RCT conducted in child and adolescent mental health and community paediatric settings recruited participants aged 6-15 years diagnosed with ADHD starting stimulant medication. Participants were randomised into one of two arms: experimental (QbTest protocol) where participants completed a QbTest at baseline and two follow-up QbTests on medication (2-4 weeks and 8-10 weeks later) and control where participants received treatment as usual, including at least two follow-up consultations. Measures of parent, teacher, and clinician-rated symptoms and global functioning were completed at each time point. Clinicians recorded treatment decision-making and health economic measures were obtained. Data were analysed using multi-level modelling and participants (children and parents) and clinicians were interviewed about their experiences, resulting data were thematically analysed.RESULTSForty-four children and young people were randomised. Completion of study outcome measures by care-givers and teachers ranged from 52 to 78% at baseline to 47-65% at follow-up. Participants reported the questionnaires to be useful to complete. SNAP-IV inattention scores showed greater reduction in the intervention than the control group (- 5.85, 95% CI - 10.33, - 1.36,). Engagement with the intervention ranged from 100% at baseline, to 78% follow-up 1 and 57% follow-up 2. However, only 37% of QbTests were conducted in the correct time period. Interview data highlighted that the objectivity of the QbTest was appreciated by clinicians and parents. Clinicians commented that the additional time and resources required meant that it is not feasible to use QbTest for all cases.CONCLUSIONThe trial design and protocol appear to be feasible and acceptable but could be improved by modifying QbTest time periods and the method of data collection. With these changes, the protocol may be appropriate for a full trial. Adding QbTest may improve symptom outcome as measured by SNAP-IV.TRIAL, NCT03368573 , prospectively registered, 11th December 2017, and ISRCTN, ISRCTN69461593 , retrospectively registered, 10th April 2018.
  • The World Federation of ADHD international consensus statement: 208 evidence-based conclusions about the disorder

    Daley, David; Hollis, Chris P. (2021)
    BACKGROUNDMisconceptions about ADHD stigmatize affected people, reduce credibility of providers, and prevent/delay treatment. To challenge misconceptions, we curated findings with strong evidence base.METHODSWe reviewed studies with more than 2,000 participants or meta-analyses from five or more studies or 2,000 or more participants. We excluded meta-analyses that did not assess publication bias, except for meta-analyses of prevalence. For network meta-analyses we required comparison adjusted funnel plots. We excluded treatment studies with waiting-list or treatment as usual controls. From this literature, we extracted evidence-based assertions about the disorder.RESULTSWe generated 208 empirically supported statements about ADHD. The status of the included statements as empirically supported is approved by 79 authors from 27 countries and 6 continents. The contents of the manuscript are endorsed by 362 people who have read this document and agree with its contents.CONCLUSIONSMany findings in ADHD are supported by meta-analysis. These allow for firm statements about the nature, course, outcome causes, and treatments for disorders that are useful for reducing misconceptions and stigma.
  • An individual participant data meta-analysis: Behavioral treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Daley, David (2021)
    OBJECTIVEBehavioral interventions are well established treatments for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, insight into moderators of treatment outcome is limited.METHODWe conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA), including data of randomized controlled behavioral intervention trials for individuals with ADHD <18 years of age. Outcomes were symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) and impairment. Moderators investigated were symptoms and impairment severity, medication use, age, IQ, sex, socioeconomic status, and single parenthood.RESULTSFor raters most proximal to treatment, small- to medium-sized effects of behavioral interventions were found for symptoms of ADHD, inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), ODD and CD, and impairment. Blinded outcomes were available only for small preschool subsamples and limited measures. CD symptoms and/or diagnosis moderated outcome on ADHD, HI, ODD, and CD symptoms. Single parenthood moderated ODD outcome, and ADHD severity moderated impairment outcome. Higher baseline CD or ADHD symptoms, a CD diagnosis, and single parenthood were related to worsening of symptoms in the untreated but not in the treated group, indicating a protective rather than an ameliorative effect of behavioral interventions for these children.CONCLUSIONBehavioral treatments are effective for reducing ADHD symptoms, behavioral problems, and impairment as reported by raters most proximal to treatment. Those who have severe CD or ADHD symptoms, a CD diagnosis, or are single parents should be prioritized for treatment, as they may evidence worsening of symptoms in the absence of intervention.
  • Indices of heart rate variability and performance during a response-conflict task are differently associated with ADHD and autism

    Bellato, Alessio; Arora, Iti; Kochhar, Puja; Hollis, Chris P.; Groom, Madeleine J. (2021)
    We investigated autonomic arousal, attention and response conflict, in ADHD and autism. Heart rate variability (HRV), and behavioral/electrophysiological indices of performance, were recorded during a task with low and high levels of response conflict in 78 children/adolescents (7-15 years old) with ADHD, autism, comorbid ADHD+autism, or neurotypical. ANOVA models were used to investigate effects of ADHD and autism, while a mediation model was tested to clarify the relationship between ADHD and slower performance. Slower and less accurate performance characterized ADHD and autism; however, atypical electrophysiological indices differently characterized these conditions. The relationship between ADHD and slower task performance was mediated by reduced HRV in response to the cue stimulus. Autonomic hypo-arousal and difficulties in mobilizing energetic resources in response to sensory information (associated with ADHD), and atypical electrophysiological indices of information processing (associated with autism), might negatively affect cognitive performance in those with ADHD+autism.
  • What is the effect of stimulus complexity on attention to repeating and changing information in autism?

    Arora, Iti; Bellato, Alessio; Kochhar, Puja; Hollis, Chris P.; Groom, Madeleine J. (2021)
    Slower habituation to repeating stimuli characterises Autism, but it is not known whether this is driven by difficulties with information processing or an attentional bias towards sameness. We conducted eye-tracking and presented looming geometrical shapes, clocks with moving arms and smiling faces, as two separate streams of stimuli (one repeating and one changing), to 7-15 years old children and adolescents (n = 103) with Autism, ADHD or co-occurring Autism+ADHD, and neurotypical children (Study-1); and to neurotypical children (n = 64) with varying levels of autistic traits (Study-2). Across both studies, autistic features were associated with longer looks to the repeating stimulus, and shorter looks to the changing stimulus, but only for more complex stimuli, indicating greater difficulty in processing complex or unpredictable information.
  • Evaluation of a web-based ADHD awareness training in primary care: Pilot randomized controlled trial with nested interviews

    French, Blandine; Hall, Charlotte L.; Perez Vallejos, Elvira; Sayal, Kapil; Daley, David (2020)
    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting up to 5% of children and adults. Undiagnosed and untreated ADHD can result in adverse long-term health, educational, and social impacts for affected individuals. Therefore, it is important to identify this disorder as early as possible. General practitioners (GPs) frequently play a gatekeeper role in access to specialist services in charge of diagnosis and treatment. Studies have shown that their lack of knowledge and understanding about ADHD can create barriers to care. OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial assesses the efficacy of a web-based psychoeducation program on ADHD tailored for GPs. METHODS: A total of 221 participants were randomized to either a sham intervention control or an awareness training intervention and they completed questionnaires on ADHD knowledge, confidence, and attitude at 3 time points (preintervention, postintervention, and 2-week follow-up). Participants in the intervention arm were invited to participate in a survey and follow-up interview between 3 and 6 months after the intervention. RESULTS: The responses of 109 GPs were included in the analysis. The knowledge (P<.001) and confidence (P<.001) of the GPs increased after the intervention, whereas misconceptions decreased (P=.04); this was maintained at the 2-week follow-up (knowledge, P<.001; confidence, P<.001; misconceptions, P=.03). Interviews and surveys also confirmed a change in practice over time. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that a short web-based intervention can increase GPs' understanding, attitude, and practice toward ADHD, potentially improving patients' access to care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN45400501;
  • Development and evaluation of an online education tool on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for general practitioners: the important contribution of co-production

    French, Blandine; Daley, David; Perez Vallejos, Elvira; Sayal, Kapil; Hall, Charlotte L. (2020)
    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is underdiagnosed in the UK and the assessment and diagnosis pathway often involves a general practitioner (GP) referral to secondary care services. GPs’ levels of knowledge and understanding about ADHD is often a significant barrier in patients accessing care. The development of an online education resource could improve GPs knowledge of ADHD and optimise appropriate referrals. Involving end-users in co-creating interventions may enhance their clinical utility and impact routine clinical practice. However, there is limited published evidence describing how to meaningfully involve stakeholders in both the design and development components of co-production. Method: We report a step wise, co-production approach towards developing an online ADHD education intervention for GPs. Preparatory work highlighted the relevant topics to be included in the intervention, from which educational videos were then developed. Workshops were then conducted with GPs, leading to further refinement of the video content and subsequently the final intervention. A pilot usability study (n = 10 GPs) was then conducted to assess the intervention’s acceptability, feasibility and accessibility. Results: The development of the online intervention was greatly facilitated by the involvement of GPs. Having a co-production development process ensured the consistent adaptation of the intervention to meet GPs’ needs. The usability study showed that the content of the intervention was suitable, easily accessible, engaging and delivered at an acceptable level of intensity, validating the development approach taken. Conclusion: While further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the developed intervention, preliminary findings demonstrated that it was acceptable and well received. The importance of co-development was highlighted in developing an intervention that addresses specific needs for GPs. This development approach may be useful for other researchers and developers of clinical interventions.
  • Long term methylphenidate exposure and growth in children and adolescents with ADHD. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Hollis, Chris P.; Liddle, Elizabeth B. (2020)
    BACKGROUNDMethylphenidate (MPH) is an efficacious treatment for ADHD but concerns have been raised about potential adverse effects of extended treatment on growth.OBJECTIVESTo systematically review the literature, up to December 2018, conducting a meta-analysis of association of long-term (> six months) MPH exposure with height, weight and timing of puberty.RESULTSEighteen studies (ADHD n = 4868) were included in the meta-analysis. MPH was associated with consistent statistically significant pre-post difference for both height (SMD = 0.27, 95% CI 0.16-0.38, p < 0.0001) and weight (SMD = 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.44, p < 0.0001) Z scores, with prominent impact on weight during the first 12 months and on height within the first 24-30 months. No significant effects of dose, formulation, age and drug-naïve condition as clinical moderators were found. Data on timing of puberty are currently limited.CONCLUSIONSLong-term treatment with MPH can result in reduction in height and weight. However, effect sizes are small with possible minimal clinical impact. Long-term prospective studies may help to clarify the underlying biological drivers and specific mediators and moderators.
  • Pharmacologic treatment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

    Cortese, Samuele (2020)
    Amphetamines and methylphenidate and, less often, nonstimulants (atomoxetine, clonidine, and guanfacine) are used to treat ADHD. Inattentiveness and restlessness are improved more than quality-of-life measures in short-term trials.
  • Bibliometric review: Classroom management in ADHD-Is there a communication gap concerning knowledge between the scientific fields psychiatry/psychology and education?

    French, Blandine; Groom, Madeleine J. (2020)
    Many students with ADHD experience educational attainment difficulties. Nevertheless, evidence-based classroom management strategies (CMS) are seldom used. This science-practitioner gap might be due to a lack of shared knowledge between the scientific fields of psychology/psychiatry and education. This review uses science mapping to explore the basis of the current stock of knowledge in each of the two scientific fields, compares current approaches, and examines whether implementation methods and related barriers are investigated topics. We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify articles on CMS in ADHD. We then conducted co-citation analyses and bibliographic coupling analysis. The former revealed six clusters of psychology/psychiatry and five clusters of education. Bibliographic coupling analysis resulted in eight clusters, with literature from both fields. The majority of the research is conducted in the field of psychology/psychiatry; teachers' perspectives are focused only in the field of education. The number of studies on implementation and potential barriers is small. There was thus relatively little communication between the sciences, but the scientific fields have seemed to converge recently. Connecting the scientific fields more and concentrating on implementation methods and barriers is strongly needed to close the science-practitioner gap. © 2020 by the authors.
  • The validity of the SNAP-IV in children displaying ADHD symptoms

    Hall, Charlotte L.; Guo, Boliang; Valentine, Althea Z.; Groom, Madeleine J.; Daley, David; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris P. (2020)
    The Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP-IV) is a widely used scale that measures the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there are contradictory findings regarding factor structure. Factor structure and measurement equivalence/invariance analysis on parent and teacher SNAP-IV for children referred for an ADHD assessment ( N = 250; 6-17 years), revealed a two-factor structure provided the best fit. SNAP-IV scores were also compared with clinician diagnosis of ADHD and research diagnoses of ADHD and hyperkinetic disorder. Parent ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were good predictors of research but not clinician diagnosis. For teacher ratings, only hyperactivity/impulsivity scores were associated with research and clinician diagnosis. SNAP-IV scores showed high sensitivity but low specificity to clinician diagnosis. The SNAP-IV is a valid outcome measure for use in randomized controlled trials and clinical settings, and is best used as a screening rather than a diagnostic tool for ADHD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: journal abstract)
  • A systematic review evaluating the implementation of technologies to assess, monitor and treat neurodevelopmental disorders: A map of the current evidence

    Valentine, Althea Z.; Brown, Beverley J.; Groom, Madeleine J.; Young, Emma; Hollis, Chris P.; Hall, Charlotte L. (2020)
    Technology-based interventions provide an attractive option for improving service provision for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), for example, widening access to interventions, objective assessment, and monitoring; however, it is unclear whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use in clinical settings. This review provides an evidence map describing how technology is implemented in the assessment/diagnosis and monitoring/ treatment of NDD (Prospero CRD42018091156). Using predefined search terms in six databases, 7982 articles were identified, 808 full-texts were screened, resulting in 47 included papers. These studies were appraised and synthesised according to the following outcomes of interest: effectiveness (clinical effectiveness/ service delivery efficiencies), economic impact, and user impact (acceptability/ feasibility). The findings describe how technology is currently being utilised clinically, highlights gaps in knowledge, and discusses future research needs. Technology has been used to facilitate assessment and treatment across multiple NDD, especially Autism Spectrum (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) disorders. Technologies include mobile apps/tablets, robots, gaming, computerised tests, videos, and virtual reality. The outcomes presented largely focus on the clinical effectiveness of the technology, with approximately half the papers demonstrating some degree of effectiveness, however, the methodological quality of many studies is limited. Further research should focus on randomised controlled trial designs with longer follow-up periods, incorporating an economic evaluation, as well as qualitative studies including process evaluations and user impact.

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