• Awareness of ADHD in primary care: Stakeholder perspectives

      French, Blandine; Perez Vallejos, Elvira; Sayal, Kapil; Daley, David (2020)
      Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is underdiagnosed in many European countries and the process of accessing care and diagnosis is complex and variable. In many countries, general practitioners (GPs) refer on to secondary care where individuals receive an assessment and, if appropriate, a diagnosis and access to care. It is therefore essential that GPs have a clear understanding of the disorder and its care pathways. While previous studies have highlighted potential barriers in GPs' ADHD awareness, this qualitative study aims to further explore individual stakeholders' experiences. Methods: Semi-structured interviews explored the views of multiple stakeholders- GPs (n = 5), healthcare specialists (n = 5), patients (adults with ADHD n = 5) and parents (n = 5) with experience of the presentation and management of ADHD in primary care. These interviews were analysed using thematic analyses and following principles of grounded theory. Results: Stakeholders described ADHD assessment, diagnosis and treatment as an intricate process. Many factors affected this process such as complex pathways, lack of services, limited GP recognition and knowledge, and communicative difficulties between and within multiple stakeholders. Conclusion: This analysis underlines the significant impact that receiving (or not) a diagnosis can have, and further explores muddled ADHD care pathways, highlighting key issues around GP identification and the shortage of adult services. Implications for practice and future research are discussed, suggesting a strong need for more commissioned pathways and GP specific educational programs. © 2020 The Author(s).
    • Development and evaluation of an online education tool on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for general practitioners: the important contribution of co-production

      French, Blandine; Daley, David; Perez Vallejos, Elvira; Sayal, Kapil; Hall, Charlotte L. (2020)
      Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is underdiagnosed in the UK and the assessment and diagnosis pathway often involves a general practitioner (GP) referral to secondary care services. GPs’ levels of knowledge and understanding about ADHD is often a significant barrier in patients accessing care. The development of an online education resource could improve GPs knowledge of ADHD and optimise appropriate referrals. Involving end-users in co-creating interventions may enhance their clinical utility and impact routine clinical practice. However, there is limited published evidence describing how to meaningfully involve stakeholders in both the design and development components of co-production. Method: We report a step wise, co-production approach towards developing an online ADHD education intervention for GPs. Preparatory work highlighted the relevant topics to be included in the intervention, from which educational videos were then developed. Workshops were then conducted with GPs, leading to further refinement of the video content and subsequently the final intervention. A pilot usability study (n = 10 GPs) was then conducted to assess the intervention’s acceptability, feasibility and accessibility. Results: The development of the online intervention was greatly facilitated by the involvement of GPs. Having a co-production development process ensured the consistent adaptation of the intervention to meet GPs’ needs. The usability study showed that the content of the intervention was suitable, easily accessible, engaging and delivered at an acceptable level of intensity, validating the development approach taken. Conclusion: While further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the developed intervention, preliminary findings demonstrated that it was acceptable and well received. The importance of co-development was highlighted in developing an intervention that addresses specific needs for GPs. This development approach may be useful for other researchers and developers of clinical interventions.
    • Evaluation of a web-based ADHD awareness training in primary care: Pilot randomized controlled trial with nested interviews

      French, Blandine; Hall, Charlotte L.; Perez Vallejos, Elvira; Sayal, Kapil; Daley, David (2020)
      BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting up to 5% of children and adults. Undiagnosed and untreated ADHD can result in adverse long-term health, educational, and social impacts for affected individuals. Therefore, it is important to identify this disorder as early as possible. General practitioners (GPs) frequently play a gatekeeper role in access to specialist services in charge of diagnosis and treatment. Studies have shown that their lack of knowledge and understanding about ADHD can create barriers to care. OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial assesses the efficacy of a web-based psychoeducation program on ADHD tailored for GPs. METHODS: A total of 221 participants were randomized to either a sham intervention control or an awareness training intervention and they completed questionnaires on ADHD knowledge, confidence, and attitude at 3 time points (preintervention, postintervention, and 2-week follow-up). Participants in the intervention arm were invited to participate in a survey and follow-up interview between 3 and 6 months after the intervention. RESULTS: The responses of 109 GPs were included in the analysis. The knowledge (P<.001) and confidence (P<.001) of the GPs increased after the intervention, whereas misconceptions decreased (P=.04); this was maintained at the 2-week follow-up (knowledge, P<.001; confidence, P<.001; misconceptions, P=.03). Interviews and surveys also confirmed a change in practice over time. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that a short web-based intervention can increase GPs' understanding, attitude, and practice toward ADHD, potentially improving patients' access to care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN45400501; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN45400501.