• A qualitative process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in community (school) settings for children at risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

      Valentine, Althea Z.; Sayal, Kapil (2015)
      BACKGROUND: Interventions for parents of children experiencing emotional and/or behavioural difficulties can help to improve their children's health, educational and social outcomes. However, the desirability and acceptability of screening and offering such interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-type problems are currently unclear. This article is a qualitative process evaluation of a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial (Trial registration: ISRCTN87634685; reported elsewhere) to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based parenting intervention programme for parents and teachers of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms.
    • Academic outcomes following a school-based RCT for ADHD: 6-year follow-up

      Sayal, Kapil (2015)
      OBJECTIVE: For children with high levels of ADHD symptoms, to investigate the impact of early school-based interventions on academic outcomes in mid-childhood. METHOD: A 6-year follow-up of 4- to 5-year-olds (N = 52,075) whose schools participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial for children at risk of ADHD. School-level interventions involved the provision of a booklet with evidence-based information (book) and/or feedback of names (identification) of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. At ages 10 to 11 years, outcome measures were scores in English and mathematics tests. RESULTS: For children with high levels of ADHD symptoms, the interventions had no impact on academic outcomes. When all children were analyzed, the book intervention had a positive impact on mathematics. Baseline inattention was associated with poorer academic outcomes, whereas impulsiveness was associated with better academic outcomes. CONCLUSION: The provision of evidence-based information about helping children with ADHD at school may have wider academic benefits.
    • ADHD and transitions to adult mental health services: A scoping review

      Swift, Katie D.; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris P. (2014)
      There is increased awareness that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues into adulthood. Thus, health services are faced with a new challenge in providing a 'smooth' transition to adult services appropriate for young people with ADHD. This scoping review sought to identify the literature addressing transition for young people with ADHD to adult mental health services (AMHS). A scoping review, in which the search terms 'ADHD' and 'Transition' or 'Transfer' were entered into eight healthcare publication databases facilitated by NHS Evidence to identify both published and unpublished papers between 2000 and June 2013. Additional informal searches were also undertaken. Twenty-three papers were selected for this review. This review confirms the lack of research explicitly tracking transition from Paediatrics/Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to AMHS for young people with ADHD. Only four papers directly studying transition for ADHD patients were identified. Three further studies surveyed clinician perspectives. Taken together, the studies address a number of issues in relation to transition, including the developmental course of ADHD symptoms, appropriate adult care, knowledge and communication, unmet need, comorbidities, environmental demands and medication cessation/dosage during the transition period. While literature surrounding transition exists, the scope of the evidence showing successful and unsuccessful transition activity from Paediatric and CAMHS to AMHS for young people with ADHD is limited. Future quality research in the form of audits, longitudinal tracking studies and service evaluations are required if we are truly to understand and identify what is needed and currently available for successful transition to an appropriate adult service for ADHD patients.; © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    • ADHD in children and young people: Prevalence, care pathways, and service provision

      Sayal, Kapil; Prasad, Vibhore; Daley, David (2017)
      Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood behavioural disorder. Systematic reviews indicate that the community prevalence globally is between 2% and 7%, with an average of around 5%. At least a further 5% of children have substantial difficulties with overactivity, inattention, and impulsivity that are just under the threshold to meet full diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Estimates of the administrative prevalence (clinically diagnosed or recorded) vary worldwide, and have been increasing over time. However, ADHD is still relatively under-recognised and underdiagnosed in most countries, particularly in girls and older children. ADHD often persists into adulthood and is a risk factor for other mental health disorders and negative outcomes, including educational underachievement, difficulties with employment and relationships, and criminality. The timely recognition and treatment of children with ADHD-type difficulties provides an opportunity to improve long-term outcomes. This Review includes a systematic review of the community and administrative prevalence of ADHD in children and adolescents, an overview of barriers to accessing care, a description of associated costs, and a discussion of evidence-based pathways for the delivery of clinical care, including a focus on key issues for two specific age groups-younger children (aged ≤6 years) and adolescents requiring transition of care from child to adult services. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.
    • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with poorer academic performance

      Sayal, Kapil (2008)
      Question:Is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) associated with poorer academic outcomes?Population:From a large birth cohort for whom school records were available through a contractual agreement with the city, 370 adolescents fulfilling criteria for ADHD (mean age 10.4 years; 75% male), and 740 age and gender matched controls (two for each case) without ADHD or any other psychiatric disorder were selected. Medical records for these participants were available through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. DSM-IV exclusion criteria: severe mental retardation, developmental disorder, schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorder.Setting:Rochester, Minnesota, USA. Participants enrolled in the January 1976 to December 1982 birth cohort.Prognostic factors:ADHD.Outcomes:Reading achievement (percentile rank on the California Achievement Score, measured every 2 years to mean age 13 years), absenteeism (percentage days absent per school grade level for each subject), grade retention (need to repeat one or more grades), and dropout from school prior to graduation, taken from school records.METHODSDesign: Retrospective cohort study.Follow-up period: From age 5 years until emigration, death, school graduation, or dropout.MAIN RESULTSBoth boys and girls with ADHD had significantly lower reading scores (measured on California Achievement Test) than controls (mean CAT score: 45 with ADHD vs 73 for controls; p<0.001) and significantly more days absent than controls across grade levels (p<0.001). Those with ADHD were significantly more likely than controls to have repeated a grade (HR 3; 95% CI 2.1 to 4.4; p<0.001) and to have dropped out from school (HR 2.7; 95% CI 1.8 to 3.9; p<0.001). Findings were similar with adjustment for age and gender.CONCLUSIONSADHD affects academic performance. Adolescents with ADHD have lower standardised reading achievement scores and higher rates of school absenteeism, school dropout and grade retention compared to matched controls.
    • Awareness of ADHD in primary care: Stakeholder perspectives

      French, Blandine; Perez Vallejos, Elvira; Sayal, Kapil; Daley, David (2020)
      Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is underdiagnosed in many European countries and the process of accessing care and diagnosis is complex and variable. In many countries, general practitioners (GPs) refer on to secondary care where individuals receive an assessment and, if appropriate, a diagnosis and access to care. It is therefore essential that GPs have a clear understanding of the disorder and its care pathways. While previous studies have highlighted potential barriers in GPs' ADHD awareness, this qualitative study aims to further explore individual stakeholders' experiences. Methods: Semi-structured interviews explored the views of multiple stakeholders- GPs (n = 5), healthcare specialists (n = 5), patients (adults with ADHD n = 5) and parents (n = 5) with experience of the presentation and management of ADHD in primary care. These interviews were analysed using thematic analyses and following principles of grounded theory. Results: Stakeholders described ADHD assessment, diagnosis and treatment as an intricate process. Many factors affected this process such as complex pathways, lack of services, limited GP recognition and knowledge, and communicative difficulties between and within multiple stakeholders. Conclusion: This analysis underlines the significant impact that receiving (or not) a diagnosis can have, and further explores muddled ADHD care pathways, highlighting key issues around GP identification and the shortage of adult services. Implications for practice and future research are discussed, suggesting a strong need for more commissioned pathways and GP specific educational programs. © 2020 The Author(s).
    • Barriers and facilitators to understanding of ADHD in primary care: A mixed-method systematic review

      French, Blandine; Sayal, Kapil; Daley, David (2018)
      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder affecting up to 5% of children and adults and is underdiagnosed in many European countries. The process of access to care for this disorder is complex and variable across countries. In general, those affected, or their caregiver, will seek help through their primary care practitioners who are then often responsible for referral to other professionals for diagnosis and provision of treatment. Previous studies have highlighted that many barriers to recognition exist in primary care settings (such as misconceptions, lack of education or lack of resources), preventing access to care for this population and potentially affecting diagnosis rate. This systematic review aims to establish the barriers and facilitators with regard to attitudes, beliefs and experiences of ADHD within primary care. Electronic searches of multiple databases identified 3898 articles of which 48 met our inclusion criteria-primary care professionals from any country, understanding, knowledge, awareness, attitude and recognition of ADHD. Four main themes were identified: (1) need for education, (2) misconceptions and stigma, (3) constraints with recognition, management and treatment, and (4) multidisciplinary approach. The findings suggest many interacting factors are at play in the recognition of ADHD by primary care practitioners with a strong recurring theme of a significant need for better education on ADHD. Implications for research and practice are discussed, suggesting that educational interventions for primary care practitioners could improve the recognition of ADHD in this setting.
    • Barriers to medication entitlements after diagnosis of ADHD - Authors' reply

      Sayal, Kapil; Prasad, Vibhore; Daley, David (2018)
      We thank John Hayden and colleagues for their helpful comments on our paper. We are also pleased that a resolution was found in Ireland for the particular problem that had been limiting access to care for those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We agree that it is important to consider and address barriers to care that might exist post-diagnosis and thank them for highlighting this issue. There is considerable variation in the way that reimbursement for medications is handled within different health-care systems as well as disparity in how rules are applied for different disorders.
    • Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): What can parents do to improve outcomes?

      Tarver, Joanne; Daley, David; Sayal, Kapil (2015)
      Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment approaches for ADHD; they have the potential to target outcomes that, at present, medication seems less able to improve. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    • Childhood behavior problems and academic outcomes in adolescence: Longitudinal population-based study

      Sayal, Kapil (2015)
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of increasing levels of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and oppositional/defiant behaviors at age 7 years on academic achievement at age 16 years. METHOD: In a population-based sample of 7-year-old children in England, information was obtained about inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and oppositional/defiant behaviors (using parent and teacher ratings) and the presence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). After adjusting for confounder variables, their associations with academic achievement in national General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examinations (using scores and minimum expected school-leaving qualification level [5 "good" GCSEs]) at age 16 years were investigated (N = 11,640). RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, there was a linear association between each 1-point increase in inattention symptoms and worse outcomes (2- to 3-point reduction in GCSE scores and 6% to 7% (10%-12% with teacher ratings) increased likelihood of not achieving 5 good GCSEs). ADHD was associated with a 27- to 32-point reduction in GCSE scores and, in boys, a more than 2-fold increased likelihood of not achieving 5 good GCSEs. In boys, oppositional/defiant behaviors were also independently associated with worse outcomes, and DBDs were associated with a 19-point reduction in GCSE scores and a 1.83-increased likelihood of not achieving 5 good GCSEs. CONCLUSION: Across the full range of scores at a population level, each 1-point increase in inattention at age 7 years is associated with worse academic outcomes at age 16. The findings highlight long-term academic risk associated with ADHD, particularly inattentive symptoms. After adjusting for inattention and ADHD respectively, oppositional/defiant behaviors and DBDs are also independently associated with worse academic outcomes.
    • Consensus workshops on the development of an ADHD medication management protocol using QbTest: developing a clinical trial protocol with multidisciplinary stakeholders

      Hall, Charlotte L.; Brown, Susan S.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Brown, Nikki; Williams, Laura; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris P.; Groom, Madeleine J. (2019)
      BACKGROUNDThe study design and protocol that underpin a randomised controlled trial (RCT) are critical for the ultimate success of the trial. Although RCTs are considered the gold standard for research, there are multiple threats to their validity such as participant recruitment and retention, identifying a meaningful change, and non-adherence to the protocol. For clinical RCTs, involving patients and clinicians in protocol design provides the opportunity to develop research protocols that are meaningful to their target audience and may help overcome some of the inherent threats in conducting RCTs. However, the majority of protocols do not describe the methodology underpinning their development, limiting the amount of learned experience shared between research groups.METHODWith the purpose of reporting a collaborative approach towards developing a protocol, we present the findings from three sequential workshops that were conducted with the aim of developing a protocol to investigate the feasibility of adding a computerised test of attention, impulsivity and activity (QbTest) to medication management of children and young people with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Based on previous qualitative interviews with clinicians and families, each workshop prioritised topics for focused discussion. Information from the workshops was fed back to the participants for reflection in advance of the next workshop.RESULTSThe workshops involved 21 multi-disciplinary ADHD experts, including clinicians, patient and public involvement (PPI) members, parents of young people with ADHD and researchers. The consensus workshops addressed key research issues such as: the most relevant outcome measures/ resource drivers; methods and time points for data collection; and the clinical protocol for utilising the QbTest, including when best to use this within the medication management process. The resulting protocol details a feasibility RCT design describing these factors.CONCLUSIONProtocols which are co-developed may help overcome some of the risks associated with RCT completion (e.g. recruitment, retention, protocol adherence) and help prioritise outcomes of greater relevance to the populations under study. The methodology has potential value for researchers and organisations developing clinical guidelines, and offers insights into the valuable impact of PPI upon trial design.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicaltrials.gov NCT03368573, 11th December 2017 (retrospectively registered).
    • Development and evaluation of an online education tool on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for general practitioners: the important contribution of co-production

      French, Blandine; Daley, David; Perez Vallejos, Elvira; Sayal, Kapil; Hall, Charlotte L. (2020)
      Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is underdiagnosed in the UK and the assessment and diagnosis pathway often involves a general practitioner (GP) referral to secondary care services. GPs’ levels of knowledge and understanding about ADHD is often a significant barrier in patients accessing care. The development of an online education resource could improve GPs knowledge of ADHD and optimise appropriate referrals. Involving end-users in co-creating interventions may enhance their clinical utility and impact routine clinical practice. However, there is limited published evidence describing how to meaningfully involve stakeholders in both the design and development components of co-production. Method: We report a step wise, co-production approach towards developing an online ADHD education intervention for GPs. Preparatory work highlighted the relevant topics to be included in the intervention, from which educational videos were then developed. Workshops were then conducted with GPs, leading to further refinement of the video content and subsequently the final intervention. A pilot usability study (n = 10 GPs) was then conducted to assess the intervention’s acceptability, feasibility and accessibility. Results: The development of the online intervention was greatly facilitated by the involvement of GPs. Having a co-production development process ensured the consistent adaptation of the intervention to meet GPs’ needs. The usability study showed that the content of the intervention was suitable, easily accessible, engaging and delivered at an acceptable level of intensity, validating the development approach taken. Conclusion: While further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the developed intervention, preliminary findings demonstrated that it was acceptable and well received. The importance of co-development was highlighted in developing an intervention that addresses specific needs for GPs. This development approach may be useful for other researchers and developers of clinical interventions.
    • Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a brief school-based group programme for parents of children at risk of ADHD: A cluster randomised controlled trial

      Sayal, Kapil; Taylor, John A.; Valentine, Althea Z.; Guo, Boliang; Sampson, Christopher J.; James, Marilyn; Hollis, Chris P.; Daley, David (2016)
      BACKGROUND: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommend a stepped care approach for the identification and management of children with, or at risk of, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of a group parenting intervention programme (+/- a teacher session) for children at risk of ADHD. METHODS: In a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial, 12 primary schools were randomly assigned to control, parent-only and combined (parent+teacher) intervention arms. Eligible children had high levels of parent-rated hyperactivity/inattention (n=199). At 6month follow-up, the primary outcome measure was the parent-completed Conners' Rating Scale - Revised (ADHD index). Secondary outcomes included the Conners' sub-scales (hyperactivity, cognitive problems/inattention and oppositional behaviour), the teacher-completed Conners' Rating Scale - Revised, child health-related quality of life, parental burden and parental mental health. The cost-effectiveness analyses reflected a health and personal social services perspective. Trial registration: isrctn87634685. RESULTS: Follow-up data were obtained from 76 parents and 169 teachers. There was no effect of the parent-only (mean difference=-1.1, 95% CI -5.1,2.9; p=0.57) or combined interventions (mean difference=-2.1, 95% CI -6.4,2.1; p=0.31) on the ADHD index. The combined intervention was associated with reduced parent-reported hyperactivity symptoms (mean difference=-5.3; 95% CI -10.5,-0.01; p=0.05) and the parent-only intervention with improved parental mental health (mean difference=-1.9; 95% CI -3.2,-0.5; p=0.009). The incremental costs of the parent-only and the combined interventions were 73 and 123, respectively. Above a willingness-to-pay of 31 per one-point improvement in the ADHD index, the parent-only programme had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness. Participants found the interventions acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: For children at risk of ADHD, this school-based parenting programme was not associated with improvement in core ADHD symptoms. Secondary analyses suggested a possible reduction in parent-reported hyperactivity and parental mental health problems. Future research should compare targeted interventions against watchful waiting and specialist referral.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    • Evaluation of a web-based ADHD awareness training in primary care: Pilot randomized controlled trial with nested interviews

      French, Blandine; Hall, Charlotte L.; Perez Vallejos, Elvira; Sayal, Kapil; Daley, David (2020)
      BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting up to 5% of children and adults. Undiagnosed and untreated ADHD can result in adverse long-term health, educational, and social impacts for affected individuals. Therefore, it is important to identify this disorder as early as possible. General practitioners (GPs) frequently play a gatekeeper role in access to specialist services in charge of diagnosis and treatment. Studies have shown that their lack of knowledge and understanding about ADHD can create barriers to care. OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial assesses the efficacy of a web-based psychoeducation program on ADHD tailored for GPs. METHODS: A total of 221 participants were randomized to either a sham intervention control or an awareness training intervention and they completed questionnaires on ADHD knowledge, confidence, and attitude at 3 time points (preintervention, postintervention, and 2-week follow-up). Participants in the intervention arm were invited to participate in a survey and follow-up interview between 3 and 6 months after the intervention. RESULTS: The responses of 109 GPs were included in the analysis. The knowledge (P<.001) and confidence (P<.001) of the GPs increased after the intervention, whereas misconceptions decreased (P=.04); this was maintained at the 2-week follow-up (knowledge, P<.001; confidence, P<.001; misconceptions, P=.03). Interviews and surveys also confirmed a change in practice over time. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that a short web-based intervention can increase GPs' understanding, attitude, and practice toward ADHD, potentially improving patients' access to care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN45400501; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN45400501.
    • The feasibility of a strategy for the remote recruitment, consenting and assessment of recent referrals: a protocol for phase 1 of the On-Line Parent Training for the Initial Management of ADHD referrals (OPTIMA)

      Daley, David; French, Blandine; Glazebrook, Cris; Groom, Madeleine J.; Hall, Charlotte L.; Sayal, Kapil (2022)
      BACKGROUND: In the UK, children with high levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention referred to clinical services with possible attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often wait a long time for specialist diagnostic assessment. Parent training (PT) has the potential to support parents during this difficult period, especially regarding the management of challenging and disruptive behaviours that often accompany ADHD. However, traditional face-to-face PT is costly and difficult to organise in a timely way. We have created a low-cost, easily accessible PT programme delivered via a phone app, Structured E-Parenting Support (STEPS), to address this problem. The overall OPTIMA programme will evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of STEPS as a way of helping parents manage their children behaviour while on the waitlist. To ensure the timely and efficient evaluation of STEPS in OPTIMA, we have worked with children's health services to implement a remote strategy for recruitment, screening and assessment of recently referred families. Part of this strategy is incorporated into routine clinical practice and part is OPTIMA specific. Here, we present the protocol for Phase 1 of OPTIMA-a study of the feasibility of this remote strategy, as a basis for a large-scale STEPS randomised controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: This is a single arm observational feasibility study. Participants will be parents of up to 100 children aged 5-11 years with high levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity, inattention and challenging behaviour who are waiting for assessment in one of five UK child and adolescent mental health or behavioural services. Recruitment, consenting and data collection will occur remotely. The primary outcome will be the rate at which the families, who meet inclusion criteria, agree in principle to take part in a full STEPS RCT. Secondary outcomes include acceptability of remote consenting and online data collection procedures; the feasibility of collecting teacher data remotely within the required timeframe, and technical difficulties with completing online questionnaires. All parents in the study will receive access to STEPS. DISCUSSION: Establishing the feasibility of our remote recruitment, consenting and assessment strategy is a pre-requisite for the full trial of OPTIMA. It can also provide a model for future trials conducted remotely.
    • The impact of a computerised test of attention and activity (QbTest) on diagnostic decision-making in children and young people with suspected attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: single-blind randomised controlled trial

      Hollis, Chris P.; Hall, Charlotte L.; Guo, Boliang; Groom, Madeleine J.; Brown, Nikki; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine; Moldavsky, Maria; Valentine, Althea Z.; Walker, Gemma M.; Daley, David; et al. (2018)
      BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relies on subjective methods which can lead to diagnostic uncertainty and delay. This trial evaluated the impact of providing a computerised test of attention and activity (QbTest) report on the speed and accuracy of diagnostic decision-making in children with suspected ADHD. METHODS: Randomised, parallel, single-blind controlled trial in mental health and community paediatric clinics in England. Participants were 6-17 years-old and referred for ADHD diagnostic assessment; all underwent assessment-as-usual, plus QbTest. Participants and their clinician were randomised to either receive the QbTest report immediately (QbOpen group) or the report was withheld (QbBlind group). The primary outcome was number of consultations until a diagnostic decision confirming/excluding ADHD within 6-months from baseline. Health economic cost-effectiveness and cost utility analysis was conducted. Assessing QbTest Utility in ADHD: A Randomised Controlled Trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02209116). RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-two participants were randomised to QbOpen group (123 analysed) and 135 to QbBlind group (127 analysed). Clinicians with access to the QbTest report (QbOpen) were more likely to reach a diagnostic decision about ADHD (hazard ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.04-2.01). At 6-months, 76% of those with a QbTest report had received a diagnostic decision, compared with 50% without. QbTest reduced appointment length by 15% (time ratio 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.93), increased clinicians' confidence in their diagnostic decisions (odds ratio 1.77, 95% CI 1.09-2.89) and doubled the likelihood of excluding ADHD. There was no difference in diagnostic accuracy. Health economic analysis showed a position of strict dominance; however, cost savings were small suggesting that the impact of providing the QbTest report within this trial can best be viewed as 'cost neutral'. CONCLUSIONS: QbTest may increase the efficiency of ADHD assessment pathway allowing greater patient throughput with clinicians reaching diagnostic decisions faster without compromising diagnostic accuracy.
    • Inattention and hyperactivity in children at risk of obesity: A community cross-sectional study

      Sayal, Kapil; Glazebrook, Cris (2013)
      OBJECTIVE: There is a link between the symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention and overweight in children. Less is known about the factors which might influence this relationship, such as physical and sedentary activity levels or exercise self-efficacy. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between the symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention and risk factors for adult obesity in a sample of children with barriers to exercise.
    • Knowledge and attitudes about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its treatment: The views of children, adolescents, parents, teachers and healthcare professionals

      Moldavsky, Maria; Sayal, Kapil (2013)
      Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuro-developmental disorder that causes controversy; this may have a negative effect on the ability of families, teachers and healthcare professionals to achieve shared understanding and goals. This article reviews recent research of the knowledge and attitudes of children, adolescents, parents, teachers, healthcare professionals and the public about ADHD. Findings suggest that misconceptions about ADHD persist, and children with ADHD and their parents report stigmatizing experiences. Educational interventions to improve the knowledge of teachers about ADHD appeared to be effective in the short term. Parents and professionals working together in the diagnosis and treatment of children with ADHD may have different views about their roles in the shared decision-making process. Studies have reported both similarities and differences in parents' and professionals' views about the effectiveness of treatments for ADHD, but all stakeholders supported the principles of information-sharing and working in partnership.;
    • Neurological and psychiatric adverse effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment in ADHD: A map of the current evidence

      Hall, Charlotte L.; Groom, Madeleine J.; Kochhar, Puja; Roberts, Samantha; Sayal, Kapil; Xia, Jun; Hollis, Chris P.; Liddle, Elizabeth B. (2019)
      Methylphenidate (MPH), the most common medication for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in many countries, is often prescribed for long periods of time. Any long-term psychotropic treatment in childhood raises concerns about possible adverse neurological and psychiatric outcomes. We aimed to map current evidence regarding neurological and psychiatric outcomes, adverse or beneficial, of long-term MPH (> 1 year) treatment in ADHD. We coded studies using a "traffic light" system: Green: safe/favours MPH; Amber: warrants caution; Red: not safe/not well-tolerated. Un-categorisable study findings were coded as "Unclear". Although some evidence suggests an elevated risk of psychosis and tics, case reports describe remission on discontinuation. Several studies suggest that long-term MPH may reduce depression and suicide in ADHD. Evidence suggests caution in specific groups including pre-school children, those with tics, and adolescents at risk for substance misuse. We identified a need for more studies that make use of large longitudinal databases, focus on specific neuropsychiatric outcomes, and compare outcomes from long-term MPH treatment with outcomes following shorter or no pharmacological intervention.
    • Optimising medication management in children and young people with ADHD using a computerised test (QbTest): a feasibility randomised controlled trial

      Williams, Laura; Hall, Charlotte L.; Brown, Susan S.; Guo, Boliang; James, Marilyn; Brown, Nikki; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris P.; Groom, Madeleine J. (2021)
      BACKGROUNDMedication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be closely monitored to ensure optimisation. There is growing interest in using computerised assessments of ADHD symptoms to support medication monitoring. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of one such computerised assessment, the Quantified Behavior (Qb) Test, as part of medication management for ADHD.METHODSThis feasibility multi-site RCT conducted in child and adolescent mental health and community paediatric settings recruited participants aged 6-15 years diagnosed with ADHD starting stimulant medication. Participants were randomised into one of two arms: experimental (QbTest protocol) where participants completed a QbTest at baseline and two follow-up QbTests on medication (2-4 weeks and 8-10 weeks later) and control where participants received treatment as usual, including at least two follow-up consultations. Measures of parent, teacher, and clinician-rated symptoms and global functioning were completed at each time point. Clinicians recorded treatment decision-making and health economic measures were obtained. Data were analysed using multi-level modelling and participants (children and parents) and clinicians were interviewed about their experiences, resulting data were thematically analysed.RESULTSForty-four children and young people were randomised. Completion of study outcome measures by care-givers and teachers ranged from 52 to 78% at baseline to 47-65% at follow-up. Participants reported the questionnaires to be useful to complete. SNAP-IV inattention scores showed greater reduction in the intervention than the control group (- 5.85, 95% CI - 10.33, - 1.36,). Engagement with the intervention ranged from 100% at baseline, to 78% follow-up 1 and 57% follow-up 2. However, only 37% of QbTests were conducted in the correct time period. Interview data highlighted that the objectivity of the QbTest was appreciated by clinicians and parents. Clinicians commented that the additional time and resources required meant that it is not feasible to use QbTest for all cases.CONCLUSIONThe trial design and protocol appear to be feasible and acceptable but could be improved by modifying QbTest time periods and the method of data collection. With these changes, the protocol may be appropriate for a full trial. Adding QbTest may improve symptom outcome as measured by SNAP-IV.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03368573 , prospectively registered, 11th December 2017, and ISRCTN, ISRCTN69461593 , retrospectively registered, 10th April 2018.