• Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a brief school-based group programme for parents of children at risk of ADHD: A cluster randomised controlled trial

      Sayal, Kapil; Taylor, John A.; Valentine, Althea Z.; Guo, Boliang; Sampson, Christopher J.; James, Marilyn; Hollis, Chris P.; Daley, David (2016)
      BACKGROUND: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommend a stepped care approach for the identification and management of children with, or at risk of, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of a group parenting intervention programme (+/- a teacher session) for children at risk of ADHD. METHODS: In a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial, 12 primary schools were randomly assigned to control, parent-only and combined (parent+teacher) intervention arms. Eligible children had high levels of parent-rated hyperactivity/inattention (n=199). At 6month follow-up, the primary outcome measure was the parent-completed Conners' Rating Scale - Revised (ADHD index). Secondary outcomes included the Conners' sub-scales (hyperactivity, cognitive problems/inattention and oppositional behaviour), the teacher-completed Conners' Rating Scale - Revised, child health-related quality of life, parental burden and parental mental health. The cost-effectiveness analyses reflected a health and personal social services perspective. Trial registration: isrctn87634685. RESULTS: Follow-up data were obtained from 76 parents and 169 teachers. There was no effect of the parent-only (mean difference=-1.1, 95% CI -5.1,2.9; p=0.57) or combined interventions (mean difference=-2.1, 95% CI -6.4,2.1; p=0.31) on the ADHD index. The combined intervention was associated with reduced parent-reported hyperactivity symptoms (mean difference=-5.3; 95% CI -10.5,-0.01; p=0.05) and the parent-only intervention with improved parental mental health (mean difference=-1.9; 95% CI -3.2,-0.5; p=0.009). The incremental costs of the parent-only and the combined interventions were 73 and 123, respectively. Above a willingness-to-pay of 31 per one-point improvement in the ADHD index, the parent-only programme had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness. Participants found the interventions acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: For children at risk of ADHD, this school-based parenting programme was not associated with improvement in core ADHD symptoms. Secondary analyses suggested a possible reduction in parent-reported hyperactivity and parental mental health problems. Future research should compare targeted interventions against watchful waiting and specialist referral.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.