• The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with ADHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

      Tickle, Anna C. (2016)
      Objective: To systematically review the literature on published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for adult ADHD and to establish the effectiveness of CBT in reducing ADHD symptoms. Method: A systematic review of nine RCTs and two subsequent meta-analyses of eight of the studies were conducted. Results: Just nine studies were identified, of generally good quality but with some limitations. Four trials (total N = 160) compared CBT with waiting list controls, and three trials (total N = 191) compared CBT with appropriate active control groups. Meta-analyses showed that CBT was superior to waiting list with a moderate to large effect size (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.21, 1.31], p = .006) and superior to active control groups with a small to moderate effect size (SMD = 0.43, 95% CI [0.14, 0.71], p = .004). Conclusion: These results give support to the efficacy of CBT in reducing symptoms of ADHD post-intervention.
    • Psychological impact of an adult ADHD diagnosis: "A blessing and a curse?"

      Young, Zoe; Tickle, Anna C.; Gillott, Alinda; Groom, Madeleine J. (2010)
      Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is commonly thought of as a,childhood. disorder but is increasingly recognized as affecting adults. The aim of this study was to explore the psychological impact of receiving a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood. Method: A qualitative study was conducted. Twelve adults (seven male, five female; aged 18-54) participated in semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Three master themes were identified with subthemes: (1) Looking back: different, faulty; relief and regret; reframing; (2) Looking inwards (with acceptance); and (3) Looking outwards: labeling: disability, stigma and social comparisons. Conclusion: The results highlighted a dilemma: diagnosis was necessary to access appropriate support and helpful to acknowledge (and potentially reframe) experiences, understand oneself better (including recognizing strengths) and foster a sense of belonging. However, after diagnosis there remains a struggle with the sense of self, feeling stigmatized, and the permanence of being or having ADHD forever.