• From snappy app to screens in the wild: Gamifying an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder continuous performance test for public engagement and awareness

      Craven, Michael P.; Young, Zoe; Simons, Lucy; Gillott, Alinda (2014)
      Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that is characterised by three core behaviours: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. It is typically thought that around 3-5% of school aged children have ADHD, with lifetime persistence for the majority. A psychometric Continuous Performance Test (CPT) had recently been incorporated into an interactive smartphone application (App), Snappy App, to allow the measurement of the three ADHD symptom domains. Snappy App presents a sequence of letters of the alphabet in a pseudo-random manner with responses via the device's touch screen. Following a pilot test in the general population where the CPT showed sensitivity to ADHD-related symptoms (self-reported impulsive behaviour related to CPT measures), a new project was begun to convert the App into a game Attention Grabber based on the functionality of the test, focussing on the attention and impulsivity domains. The Screens in the Wild (SITW) platform is in the process of being employed for public engagement in awareness about ADHD through interactive technology. SITW has deployed a network of four public touch-screens in urban places. Each of the four nodes has a large (46 inch) display, a camera, a microphone and a speaker. The Snappy App web-app was translated for presentation on to the SITW platform. The browser-based App was redesigned, with the input of a commercial graphics design company, based on an initial proof-of-concept whereby the original App was reprogrammed to present sequences of graphical objects (fruit) and to introduce further engagement features including animations. A shortened video about Adult ADHD and a brief questionnaire were incorporated to form a stand-alone edutainment package. The earlier design and user testing of Snappy App is briefly described and details are then provided of the process of gamification to produce Attention Grabber. An evaluation process is described whereby awareness of ADHD and its related symptoms are to be probed. In general, finding out whether and how people engage with interactive screen technology can help in the design of future public engagement and health promotion activities. Ethical considerations are discussed, since public access to this kind of game could potentially raise health anxiety related to self-interpretation of game performance. This risk is balanced with the need to provide health information. © 2014 IEEE.
    • Neurofeedback for ADHD: A review of current evidence

      Cortese, Samuele (2014)
      Considerable scientific effort has been directed at developing effective treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Among alternative treatment approaches, neurofeedback has gained some promising empirical support in recent years from controlled studies as a treatment of core ADHD symptoms. However, a recent stringent meta-analysis of 8 randomized controlled trials published in 2013 found that the effects were stronger for unblinded measures and 3 recent subsequently published well-controlled trials found no effects for the most blinded ADHD outcome. Firmer conclusions must await upcoming evidence from larger controlled studies and future meta-analyses contrasting different forms of neurofeedback and different outcome measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • ADHD and transitions to adult mental health services: A scoping review

      Swift, Katie D.; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris P. (2014)
      There is increased awareness that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continues into adulthood. Thus, health services are faced with a new challenge in providing a 'smooth' transition to adult services appropriate for young people with ADHD. This scoping review sought to identify the literature addressing transition for young people with ADHD to adult mental health services (AMHS). A scoping review, in which the search terms 'ADHD' and 'Transition' or 'Transfer' were entered into eight healthcare publication databases facilitated by NHS Evidence to identify both published and unpublished papers between 2000 and June 2013. Additional informal searches were also undertaken. Twenty-three papers were selected for this review. This review confirms the lack of research explicitly tracking transition from Paediatrics/Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to AMHS for young people with ADHD. Only four papers directly studying transition for ADHD patients were identified. Three further studies surveyed clinician perspectives. Taken together, the studies address a number of issues in relation to transition, including the developmental course of ADHD symptoms, appropriate adult care, knowledge and communication, unmet need, comorbidities, environmental demands and medication cessation/dosage during the transition period. While literature surrounding transition exists, the scope of the evidence showing successful and unsuccessful transition activity from Paediatric and CAMHS to AMHS for young people with ADHD is limited. Future quality research in the form of audits, longitudinal tracking studies and service evaluations are required if we are truly to understand and identify what is needed and currently available for successful transition to an appropriate adult service for ADHD patients.; © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    • Use of services and associated costs for young adults with childhood hyperactivity/conduct problems: 20-year follow-up

      Sayal, Kapil (2014)
      BACKGROUND: Although childhood hyperactivity and conduct problems are associated with difficulties in adulthood, little is known about later service use or public expenditure costs in the UK. AIMS: To describe the use of services and calculate recent (past 6 months) and early adulthood (since the age of 18 years) public expenditure costs incurred by young adults who had hyperactivity and/or conduct problems during childhood. METHOD: A 20-year follow-up of a community sample of 6- to 7-year-old boys (n = 83) with hyperactivity only, conduct problems only, mixed hyperactivity and conduct problems, and no behaviour problems (control). Information was obtained about service use; recent (past 6 months), and early adulthood (since age 18 years) public expenditure costs were calculated. METHOD: A 20-year follow-up of a community sample of 6- to 7-year-old boys (n = 83) with hyperactivity only, conduct problems only, mixed hyperactivity and conduct problems, and no behaviour problems (control). Information was obtained about service use; recent (past 6 months), and early adulthood (since age 18 years) public expenditure costs were calculated. RESULTS: High levels of childhood conduct problems were associated with a two- to threefold increase in early adulthood costs, mainly driven by criminal justice contacts. Although the mixed problems group had the highest recent costs in terms of receipt of benefits and health and social care, they had the lowest criminal justice costs. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of early childhood conduct problems are particularly associated with increased health, social care and criminal justice costs in adulthood.Copyright Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    • Addressing the inverse care law: The role of community paediatric services

      Beeley, Chris (2014)
      Background: Children's health suffers disproportionately from the effects of poverty. The inverse care law states that those who need care the most are the least likely to receive it. Community paediatricians are well placed to address health inequalities in children. Aims: To explore, using routinely collected data, whether we address health inequalities and the inverse care law, particularly for certain conditions targeted by our specialty. Methods: Five years of data were analysed, during which health equity audits have led to service changes in order to tackle inequities. The data include postcodes, allowing each child to be assigned to a deprivation quintile, and a range of diagnoses, including five sentinel conditions: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on medication, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), epilepsy, cerebral palsy and Down's syndrome. This allowed analysis of the caseload by deprivation index for these conditions, comparison with the background population and exploration of time trends. Results: The number of children on the caseload and their distribution across the quintiles remained stable. The proportion of deprived children (i.e. in the lowest two quintiles) on the caseload over the last five years taken together is 56%, compared to 44% in the background population. The numbers of children with ADHD on medication has almost quadrupled in deprived quintiles and doubled in the least deprived quintile, while the numbers of children with this diagnosis in the most deprived is four times that in the least deprived. Numbers of children with ASD have also increased in each quintile. In contrast, the number of children with epilepsy and cerebral palsy did not show much variation, but those from deprived quintiles made up a greater proportion of the caseload. Conclusions: Routine data collection demonstrates that inequalities are addressed using all four quality domains of service provision and sentinel conditions more likely to affect deprived children are targeted. We believe it is possible for all services to collect and analyse data thus with minimal effort, thereby providing a foundation from which to address the inverse care law.
    • Primary school teachers' attitudes about children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the role of pharmacological treatment

      Moldavsky, Maria; Sayal, Kapil (2014)
      Background: Clinical experience and research suggest that teachers' attitudes about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are an important factor influencing access to specialist assessment and treatment, including medication.; Methods: We performed a thematic analysis of comments written by primary school teachers who participated in a case-vignette study investigating the ability of teachers to recognise ADHD. Teachers read one of four types of vignette describing the behaviour of a nine-year-old child who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD (either a boy or a girl with inattentive or combined subtype of ADHD). They answered questions (identical for all types of vignette) about their views regarding the problems and their management. Teachers were invited to add their own comments.; Results: Altogether 496 teachers from 110 schools completed the questionnaire: 250 (50%) teachers from 94 schools wrote at least one comment, adding up to 341 comments. Regarding their views on the need to refer the child to specialist services, 32 teachers made comments that reflected caution. The most frequent comments were that it was too early to say whether a referral was necessary, the problems were not severe enough or the main support would come from school. Teachers also reported a lack of knowledge about specialist services or criticised them. When asked whether medication might be beneficial for the child, 125 teachers expressed hesitant or negative views: that it was premature to express an opinion about medication or too soon to give medication to the child; that medication was not necessary or should not be used at all; or that the problems were not severe enough or were emotional in nature. Only five teachers reported having a positive experience of the effect of medication.; Conclusion: Teachers' comments suggested a strong preference in using within-school strategies for the management of children with ADHD. Teachers were reluctant to endorse medication for DHD and expressed negative views about its use. Health services should support teachers' management of ADHD-related behaviours in school and provide information to increase teachers' ability to identify the need for a referral to specialist health services.;
    • The relationship between ADHD and obesity: Implications for therapy

      Cortese, Samuele (2014)
      Increasing attention is being paid to the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. While most available research focused on determining the extent of the association between ADHD and obesity, a few studies have examined the clinical implications of diagnosing/treating ADHD in individuals with obesity. Here, we provide a narrative review of studies addressing the impact of ADHD, or its treatment, in individuals with obesity. Reviewed studies suggest that ADHD impedes the successful treatment of obesity in individuals with comorbid ADHD and obesity. Preliminary evidence also suggests that ADHD treatment might significantly increase the effectiveness of weight management strategies. We discuss the limitations of the reviewed studies and provide suggestions for future research in the field. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.
    • Snappy app: A mobile continuous performance test with physical activity measurement for assessing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

      Young, Zoe; Craven, Michael P.; Groom, Madeleine J. (2014)
      A Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was incorporated into a smartphone application (App) to measure three symptom domains associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The App was pilot tested on 11 healthy adults over three testing sessions. No differences in performance were found between testing sessions suggesting good test consistency. A decrement in performance over time was only found for one measure of attention and on one testing session. The CPT showed some sensitivity to ADHD-related symptoms where self-reported impulsive behaviour was related to the CPT measures of impulsivity and activity. User acceptability was good although some design improvements were suggested. Further pilot testing of the App in a clinical population is needed. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.
    • Computer games for user engagement in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) monitoring and therapy

      Craven, Michael P.; Groom, Madeleine J. (2015)
      State-of-the-art computer games and psychological tests for symptom monitoring and therapy in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are explored and reviewed. Three foci for research studies are identified: task (human performance) focus, educational focus, medical/clinical focus. It is found that game designs in the literature include a variety of tests of cognition mostly dependent on attention and executive functions (inhibitory motor control, working memory, interference suppression) which involve reactions to stimuli on computer (or mobile phone) screens. In addition, based on the measurement of neural pathways that can be accessed by Brain Computer Interfaces, there are several applications of games that employ biofeedback and demand the user to control aspects of their brain activity to play them, with the aim of improving function. A number of games have been used in clinical studies for self-monitoring and therapy, some of these controlled with comparators such as treatment as usual or cognitive therapies, or with the individual as their own control, where efficacy is evaluated by measuring behavioural and functional outcomes on measurement instruments such as ADHD or behavioural trait questionnaires or other cognitive tests. Other applications of games include education and raising awareness of mental health conditions to reduce stigma. The paper then presents and proposes designs of new games that are based on psychological tests or tasks that aim to monitor or improve attention, inhibitory and/or motor activity including Continuous Performance Tests, Go/No-go and Stop-signal tasks. © 2015 IEEE.
    • Parenting interventions for ADHD: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis

      Sayal, Kapil (2015)
      Objective: To evaluate the evidence base relating to the effectiveness of parent-administered behavioral interventions for ADHD. Method: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials or non-randomized but adequately controlled trials for children with ADHD or high levels of ADHD symptoms was carried out across multiple databases. For meta-analyses, the most proximal ratings of child symptoms were used as the primary outcome measure. Results: Eleven studies met inclusion criteria (603 children, age range = 33-144 months). Parenting interventions were associated with reduction in ADHD symptoms (Standardized Mean Difference [SMD] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.32, 1.04]). There was no evidence of attenuation of effectiveness after excluding studies where medication was also used. Parenting interventions were also effective for comorbid conduct problems (SMD = 0.59; 95% CI [0.29, 0.90]) and parenting self-esteem (SMD = 0.93; 95% CI [0.48, 1.39]). Conclusion: These findings support clinical practice guidelines and suggest that parenting interventions are effective. There is a need to ensure the availability of parenting interventions in community settings. © 2014, © 2014 SAGE Publications.
    • Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

      van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Hollis, Chris P. (2015)
      Background: Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention.; Methods: Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye movement data were recorded simultaneously. Participants also completed the Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Measures of driving performance included average speed, proportion distance travelled over speed limit (speeding) and lane deviation. These variables and the eye movement measures (spread of fixations, mean fixation duration) were compared between groups and routes. Also, driving behaviours, including responses to programmed events, were categorised and the frequencies within categories were compared between groups. Finally, speech analysis was performed to compare emotional verbal expressions during driving between groups.; Results: ADHD participants reported significantly more Violations and Lapses on the DBQ than control participants and significantly more accidents. Average speed and speeding were also higher but did not interact with route type. ADHD participants showed poorer vehicle control, greater levels of frustration with other road users (including greater frequencies of negative comments) and a trend for less safe driving when changing lanes/overtaking on the motorway. These effects were predicted by hyperactive/impulsive CAARS scores. They were also more likely to cause a crash/near miss when an event occurred on the urban route.; Conclusions: The results suggest that difficulty regulating and controlling impulsive behavior, reflected in speeding, frustration with other road users, less safety when changing lanes on the motorway and a greater likelihood of an accident following an unexpected event, underlie impaired driving in ADHD. Hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms correlated with these indices. Deficits in sustained attention seemed to play a lesser role in this particular study, although further research is needed to determine whether effects on attention emerge over longer periods of time and/or are influenced by the novelty of the simulator environment.;
    • Evaluating a public display installation with game and video to raise awareness of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

      Craven, Michael P.; Simons, Lucy; Gillott, Alinda; Young, Zoe (2015)
      Networked Urban Screens offer new possibilities for public health education and awareness. An information video about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was combined with a custom browser-based video game and successfully deployed on an existing research platform, Screens in the Wild (SitW). The SitW platform consists of 46-in. touchscreen or interactive displays, a camera, a microphone and a speaker, deployed at four urban locations in England. Details of the platform and software implementation of the multimedia content are presented. The game was based on a psychometric continuous performance test. In the gamified version of the test, players receive a score for correctly selected target stimuli, points being awarded in proportion to reaction time and penalties for missed or incorrect selections. High scores are shared between locations. Questions were embedded to probe self-awareness about ‘attention span’ in relation to playing the game, awareness of ADHD and Adult ADHD and increase in knowledge from the video. Results are presented on the level of public engagement with the game and video, deduced from play statistics, answers to the questions and scores obtained across the screen locations. Awareness of Adult ADHD specifically was similar to ADHD in general and knowledge increased overall for 93% of video viewers. Furthermore, ratings of knowledge of Adult ADHD correlated positively with ADHD in general and positively with knowledge gain. Average scores varied amongst the sites but there was no significant correlation of question ratings with score. The challenge of interpreting user results from unsupervised platforms is discussed. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.
    • Sleep and ADHD: What we know and what we do not know

      Cortese, Samuele (2015)
      The awareness of a link between sleep disturbances and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not novel at all. In 1957, Laufer and Denhoff wrote: “Generally the parents of hyperkinetic children are so desperate over the night problems that the daytime ones pale in significance” [1]. Indeed, sleep alteration (‘Moves about excessively during sleep’) was listed in the attention-deficit disorder Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) criteria [2]. On the grounds of their poor specificity for ADHD, sleep problems were then removed from ADHD criteria of subsequent DSM editions, which likely contributed to a certain neglect of the relationship between sleep and ADHD.
    • Predictors of and barriers to service use for children at risk of ADHD: Longitudinal study

      Sayal, Kapil (2015)
      Many children with, or at risk of, ADHD do not receive healthcare services for their difficulties. This longitudinal study investigates barriers to and predictors of specialist health service use. This is a 5-year follow-up study of children who participated in a cluster randomised controlled trial, which investigated school-level interventions (provision of books with evidence-based information and/or feedback of names of children) for children at risk of ADHD. 162 children who had high levels of ADHD symptoms at age 5 (baseline) were followed up at age 10 years. Using baseline data and follow-up information collected from parents and teachers, children who had and had not used specialist health services over the follow-up period were compared and predictors (symptom severity, comorbid problems, parental perception of burden, parental mental health, and socio-demographic factors) of specialist service use investigated. The most common parent-reported barrier reflected lack of information about who could help. Amongst children using specialist health services who met criteria for ADHD at follow-up, 36 % had been prescribed stimulant medication. Specialist health service use was associated with each one-point increase in teacher-rated symptoms at baseline [inattention symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.40; 95 % CI 1.12-1.76) and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.23; 95 % CI 1.05-1.44)]. Parental mental health problems were also independently associated with service use (for each one-point increase in symptoms, adjusted OR = 1.41; 95 % CI 1.04-1.91). Severity of teacher-rated ADHD symptoms in early school years is a determinant of subsequent service use. Clinicians and teachers should be aware that parental mental health problems are independently associated with service use for children at risk of ADHD. Copyright © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
    • Practitioner Review: Pathways to care for ADHD - a systematic review of barriers and facilitators

      Moldavsky, Maria; Schneider, Justine; Chakrabarti, Ipsita (2015)
      Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder starting in childhood that may persist into adulthood. It can be managed through carefully monitored medication and nonpharmacological interventions. Access to care for children at risk of ADHD varies both within and between countries. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate the research evidence related to factors which influence children accessing services for ADHD.; Method: Studies investigating access to care for children at risk of ADHD were identified through electronic searches of the international peer-reviewed and grey literature. Databases were searched from inception till 30th April 2012. This identified 23,156 articles which were subjected to three levels of screening (title, abstract and full text) by a minimum of two independent reviewers. Due to the heterogeneity in the study designs, a narrative approach was used to present the findings.; Results: Twenty-seven papers met the inclusion criteria; these were grouped into four main themes, with some papers being included in more than one. These were wider determinants (10 papers); identification of need (9 papers); entry and continuity of care (13 papers) and interventions to improve access (4 papers). Barriers and facilitators to access were found to operate at the individual, organisational and societal level. Limited evidence of effective interventions to improve access was identified.; Conclusion: This review explored the multilayered obstacles in the pathway to care for children at risk of ADHD and the lack of evidence-based interventions designed to address these issues, thereby indicating areas for service development and further evaluative research.; © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    • Differential modulation of the N2 and P3 event-related potentials by response conflict and inhibition

      Groom, Madeleine J. (2015)
      BACKGROUND: Developing reliable and specific neural markers of cognitive processes is essential to improve understanding of healthy and atypical brain function. Despite extensive research there remains uncertainty as to whether two electrophysiological markers of cognitive control, the N2 and P3, are better conceptualised as markers of response inhibition or response conflict. The present study aimed to directly compare the effects of response inhibition and response conflict on the N2 and P3 event-related potentials, within-subjects.
    • Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): What can parents do to improve outcomes?

      Tarver, Joanne; Daley, David; Sayal, Kapil (2015)
      Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment approaches for ADHD; they have the potential to target outcomes that, at present, medication seems less able to improve. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    • Cognitive training for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Meta-analysis of clinical and neuropsychological outcomes from randomized controlled trials

      Daley, David (2015)
      OBJECTIVE: The authors performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials to examine the effects of cognitive training on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, neuropsychological deficits, and academic skills in children/adolescents with ADHD.
    • Morphological abnormalities in prefrontal surface area and thalamic volume in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

      Batty, Martin J.; Palaniyappan, Lena; Groom, Madeleine J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Liddle, Peter F.; Hollis, Chris P. (2015)
      Although previous morphological studies have demonstrated abnormalities in prefrontal cortical thickness in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), studies investigating cortical surface area are lacking. As the development of cortical surface is closely linked to the establishment of thalam-ocortical connections, any abnormalities in the structure of the thalamus are likely to relate to altered cortical surface area. Using a clinically well-defined sample of children with ADHD (n = 25, 1 female) and typically developing controls (n = 24, 1 female), we studied surface area across the cortex to determine whether children with ADHD had reduced thalamic volume that related to prefrontal cortical surface area. Relative to controls, children with ADHD had a significant reduction in thalamic volume and dorsolateral prefrontal cortical area in both hemispheres. Furthermore, children with ADHD with smaller thalamic volumes were found to have greater reductions in surface area, a pattern not evident in the control children. Our results are further evidence of reduced lateral prefrontal cortical area in ADHD. Moreover, for the first time, we have also shown a direct association between thalamic anatomy and frontal anatomy in ADHD, suggesting the pathophysiological process that alters surface area maturation is likely to be linked to the development of the thalamus.Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    • Locomotor activity measures in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Meta-analyses and new findings

      Cortese, Samuele (2015)
      INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to assess differences in movement measures in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vs. typically developing (TD) controls.