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  • A commentary review on endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty: Indications, outcomes and future implications

    Abuawwad, Mahmoud
    Metabolic and bariatric surgeries have been shown to be the most effective strategy to induce and maintain significant weight loss for people living with severe obesity. However, ongoing concerns regarding operative risks, irreversibility and excess costs limit their broader clinical use. Endoscopic bariatric therapies are pragmatic alternatives for patients who are not suitable for metabolic and bariatric surgeries or who are concerned regarding their long-term safety. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty has emerged as a novel technique of endoscopic bariatric therapies, which have garnered significant interest and evidence in the past few years. Its safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness have been shown in various studies, while comparisons with sleeve gastrectomy have been widely made. This review brings together current evidence pertaining to the technicality of the procedure itself, current indications, safety and efficacy, cost-effectiveness, as well as its future role and development.
  • The Effects of Preoperative Glycaemic Control (HbA1c) on Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery Outcomes: Data from a Tertiary-Referral Bariatric Centre in the UK.

    Wilmington, Rebekah; Abuawwad, Mahmoud; Holt, Guy; Anderson, Robyn; Aldafas, Rami; Awad, Sherif; Idris, Iskandar
    Background: Current recommendations advocate the achievement of an optimal glucose control (HbA1c < 69 mmol/mol) prior to elective surgery to reduce risks of peri- and post-operative complications, but the relevance for this glycaemic threshold prior to Bariatric Metabolic Surgery (BMS) following a specialist weight management programme remains unclear. Methods: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who underwent BMS over a 6-year period (2016-2022) at a regional tertiary referral following completion of a specialist multidisciplinary weight management. Post-operative outcomes of interest included 30-day mortality, readmission rates, need for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care and hospital length of stay (LOS) and were assessed according to HbA1c cut-off values of < 69 (N = 202) and > 69 mmol/mol (N = 67) as well as a continuous variable. Results: A total of 269 patients with T2D were included in this study. Patients underwent primary Roux en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n = 136), Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG, n = 124), insertion of gastric band (n = 4) or one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB, n = 4). No significant differences in the rates of complications were observed between the two groups of pre-operative HbA1c cut-off values. No HbA1c threshold was observed for glycaemic control that would affect the peri- and post-operative complications following BMS. Conclusions: We observed no associations between pre-operative HbA1C values and the risk of peri- and post-operative complications. In the context of a specialist multidisciplinary weight management programme, optimising pre-operative HbA1C to a recommended target value prior to BMS may not translate into reduced risks of peri- and post-operative complications. Keywords: Bariatric surgery; Complications; Glycated haemoglobin; HbA1c; Intensive care; Length of stay; Mortality; Peri-operative; Post-operative; Type 2 diabetes.
  • Can an educational video improve the adequacy of bowel preparation for patients undergoing their first colonoscopy? Results of the EBOPS RCT

    Cole, Andrew
    Background and study aims: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an educational video on the quality of bowel preparation of patients from a UK population attending for their first colonoscopy. Patients and methods A prospective, endoscopist-blinded trial with 1:1 allocation was performed. Patients referred for their first colonoscopy were recruited between February 2019 and December 2019. All participants were prescribed Moviprep and received the trial site's standard written bowel preparation instructions, with the intervention group also receiving a bespoke educational video. Adequacy of bowel preparation (defined as a Boston Bowel Preparation Scale of ≥2 in each segment of the bowel) and polyp detection rates (PDRs) were compared. Fisher's chi squared test was utilized with P <0.05 as the threshold for significance. Results A total of 509 participants completed the trial from six centers; 251 were randomized to the intervention group. The mean age was 57 years and 52.3% were female. The primary endpoint was met with an adequacy rate of 216 of 251 (86.1%) in the intervention group, compared with 205 of 259 (79.1%) in the control group ( P <0.05, odds ratio [OR] 1.626, 95% CI 1.017-2.614). The PDR was significantly higher in the intervention group (39% vs 30%, OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.04-2.19, P <0.05). Conclusions: An educational video leads to improved bowel preparation for patients attending for their first colonoscopy, and is also associated with greater detection of polyps. Widespread adoption of an educational video incurs minimal investment, but would reduce the number of inadequate procedures, missed pathology, and the cost that both these incur.
  • Response to Laden et al.

    Tabner, Andrew; Johnson, Graham
  • Real-world outcomes of Omnipod DASH system use in people with type 1 diabetes: Evidence from the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) study.

    Wilmot, Emma; Liarakos, Alexandros; Hasan, Nebras; Crabtree, Thomas
    AIMS: To evaluate real-world outcomes in people with Type 1 Diabetes (PwT1D) initiated on Omnipod DASH® Insulin Management System. METHODS: Anonymized clinical data were submitted to a secure web-based tool within the National Health Service network. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), sensor-derived glucometrics, total daily dose of insulin (TDD), and patient-reported outcome changes between baseline and follow-up were assessed. Individuals were classified to "new-to-pump" (switched from multiple daily injections) and "established-on-pump" (switched from a tethered insulin pump) groups. RESULTS: 276 individuals from 11 centers [66.7 % female; 92 % White British; median age 41 years (IQR 20-50); diabetes duration 20 years (IQR 11-31); 49.3 % within "new-to-pump" group] were included. Baseline HbA1c was 8.0 ± 1.3 % (64 ± 14 mmol/mol). At follow-up [3 years (IQR 1.5-3.2)], HbA1c reduced by 0.3 % [(3 mmol/mol); p = 0.002] across the total population, 0.4 % [(5 mmol/mol); p = 0.001] in those "new-to-pump" and remained unchanged in those "established-on-pump". TDD decreased in the "new-to-pump" cohort (baseline:44.9 ± 21.0units vs follow-up:38.1 ± 15.4units, p = 0.002). Of those asked, 141/143 (98.6 %) stated Omnipod DASH had a positive impact on quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Omnipod DASH was associated with improvements in HbA1c in PwT1D "new-to-pump" and maintained previous HbA1c levels in those "established-on-pump". User satisfaction in all groups and TDD reduction in those "new-to-pump" were reported.
  • Clinical and cost-effectiveness of individualised (early) patient-directed rehabilitation versus standard rehabilitation after surgical repair of the rotator cuff of the shoulder: protocol for a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with integrated Quintet Recruitment Intervention (RaCeR 2).

    Sherman, Rachelle; Ireland, Katie; Connan, Zak; Tildsley, Jack; Bateman, Marcus; Fakis, Apostolos
    INTRODUCTION: Despite the high number of operations and surgical advancement, rehabilitation after rotator cuff repair has not progressed for over 20 years. The traditional cautious approach might be contributing to suboptimal outcomes. Our aim is to assess whether individualised (early) patient-directed rehabilitation results in less shoulder pain and disability at 12 weeks after surgical repair of full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff compared with current standard (delayed) rehabilitation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The rehabilitation after rotator cuff repair (RaCeR 2) study is a pragmatic multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial with internal pilot phase. It has a parallel group design with 1:1 allocation ratio, full health economic evaluation and quintet recruitment intervention. Adults awaiting arthroscopic surgical repair of a full-thickness tear are eligible to participate. On completion of surgery, 638 participants will be randomised. The intervention (individualised early patient-directed rehabilitation) includes advice to the patient to remove their sling as soon as they feel able, gradually begin using their arm as they feel able and a specific exercise programme. Sling removal and movement is progressed by the patient over time according to agreed goals and within their own pain and tolerance. The comparator (standard rehabilitation) includes advice to the patient to wear the sling for at least 4 weeks and only to remove while eating, washing, dressing or performing specific exercises. Progression is according to specific timeframes rather than as the patient feels able. The primary outcome measure is the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index total score at 12-week postrandomisation. The trial timeline is 56 months in total, from September 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11499185.
  • Potentially modifiable factors associated with health-related quality of life among people with chronic kidney disease: baseline findings from the National Unified Renal Translational Research Enterprise CKD (NURTuRE-CKD) cohort.

    Lucas, Bethany; Taal, Maarten; Benavente, Melissa
    BACKGROUND: Many non-modifiable factors are associated with poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) experienced by people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesize that potentially modifiable factors for poor HRQoL can be identified among CKD patients, providing potential targets for intervention. METHOD: The National Unified Renal Translational Research Enterprise Chronic Kidney Disease (NURTuRE-CKD) cohort study recruited 2996 participants from nephrology centres with all stages of non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Baseline data collection for sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical information, including Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale renal, Hospital Anxiety and Depression score (HADS) and the 5-level EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D-5L) as HRQoL measure, took place between 2017 and 2019. EQ-5D-5L dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression) were mapped to an EQ-5D-3L value set to derive index value. Multivariable mixed effects regression models, adjusted for known factors affecting HRQoL with recruitment region as a random effect, were fit to assess potentially modifiable factors associated with index value (linear) and within each dimension (logistic). RESULTS: Among the 2958/2996 (98.7%) participants with complete EQ-5D data, 2201 (74.4%) reported problems in at least one EQ-5D-5L dimension. Multivariable linear regression identified independent associations between poorer HRQoL (EQ-5D-3L index value) and obesity (body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m2, β -0.037, 95% CI -0.058 to -0.016, P = .001), HADS depression score ≥8 (β -0.159, -0.182 to -0.137, P < .001), anxiety score ≥8 (β -0.090, -0.110 to -0.069, P < .001), taking ≥10 medications (β -0.065, -0.085 to -0.046, P < .001), sarcopenia (β -0.062, -0.080 to -0.043, P < .001) haemoglobin <100 g/L (β -0.047, -0.085 to -0.010, P = .012) and pain (β -0.134, -0.152 to -0.117, P < .001). Smoking and prescription of prednisolone independently associated with problems in self-care and usual activities respectively. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RASi) prescription associated with fewer problems with mobility and usual activities. CONCLUSION: Potentially modifiable factors including obesity, pain, depression, anxiety, anaemia, polypharmacy, smoking, steroid use and sarcopenia associated with poorer HRQoL in this cohort, whilst RASi use was associated with better HRQoL in two dimensions.
  • Real world impact of Christmas BMJ research.

    Johnson, Graham; Tabner, Andrew
    None available.
  • Development of a resource-use measure to capture costs of diabetic foot ulcers to the United Kingdom National Health Service, patients and society

    Game, Frances
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) add a significant burden to the lives of people with diabetes in the United Kingdom. They can have a considerable impact on a patient's daily life, with treatment requiring frequent changes of dressings and clinic attendances. Nurses and other allied health professionals (AHPs) within the community provide most wound care representing the primary cost driver. AIMS: To collaboratively explore key resource use related to the management of DFUs to develop, and pilot, a participant-reported measure to inform economic evaluations. METHODS: A literature search and semi-structured interviews determined health and non-health resource use in management of DFUs. A consensus view of the selected items was established in a modified Delphi study and further tested for acceptability and validity in a pilot study. RESULTS: Primary care consultations with a podiatrist or orthotist, district nurse visits, out-of-hours and emergency care, scans and investigations, and consumables provided in clinics were rated as the most important resource use items. CONCLUSIONS: This work has informed the development of a measure that captures resource use considered important by the people most affected by DFUs; patients, family members and carers, and the healthcare professionals key to DFU management.
  • Liraglutide 3.0 mg (Saxenda©) for Weight Loss and Remission of Pre-Diabetes. Real-World Clinical Evaluation of Effectiveness among Patients Awaiting Bariatric Surgery.

    Wilmington, Rebekah; Idris, Iskandar; Green, Carol
    OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of liraglutide 3.0 mg (Saxenda) therapy to induce weight loss among obese patients prior to bariatric surgery remains uncertain. METHODS: Clinical data was retrospectively obtained from patients with prediabetes (HbA1c 42-47 mmol/mol) and selected patients on the waiting list for bariatric surgery at the Royal Derby Hospital. Clinical data was collected retrospectively at 6, 12, 26 and 52 week intervals. The outcomes included mean weight change, proportion of patients achieving ≥ 5% and ≥ 10% weight loss and achieving HbA1c reduction to normal range values. RESULTS: Fifty patients (mean age of 46.2 ± 10.5 years; 76% female and 94% had Class III obesity) who completed 52 and/or 26 weeks of treatment were included. Liraglutide 3.0 mg produced a consistent and statistically significant reduction in weight (kg), BMI (kg/m2) and HbA1c (mmol/mol) across all four time intervals. Average ± SD reduction for weight, BMI and HbA1c respectively at 26 weeks were: -10.9 ± 9.1 (P < 0.01), -3.67 ± 3.5 (P < 0.01), -4.7 IQR 4.95 (P < 0.001), and at 52 weeks were: -14 ± 9.2 kg (P < 0.001), -4.64 ± 4.0 (P < 0.001 and -5.5 IQR 4 (P = 0.009). 85.7% and 33.3% of patients achieved ≥ 5% and 10% weight loss target respectively at 52 weeks. 92.3% and 72.2% achieved remission of pre-diabetes by 6 and 12 months respectively. Liraglutide 3.0 mg was well-tolerated with only 10% discontinuing medication due to tolerability issues. CONCLUSION: Liraglutide 3.0 mg, with lifestyle management, reduced weight and improved glycaemic control. These results support liraglutide's application in certain high-risk populations, including patients waiting for bariatric surgical intervention.
  • Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Drug-Induced Acute Kidney Injury Cases.

    Kolhe, Nitin
    INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced acute kidney injury (DI-AKI) is a frequent adverse event. The identification of DI-AKI is challenged by competing etiologies, clinical heterogeneity among patients, and a lack of accurate diagnostic tools. Our research aims to describe the clinical characteristics and predictive variables of DI-AKI. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Drug-Induced Renal Injury Consortium (DIRECT) study (NCT02159209), an international, multicenter, observational cohort study of enriched clinically adjudicated DI-AKI cases. Cases met the primary inclusion criteria if the patient was exposed to at least 1 nephrotoxic drug for a minimum of 24 hours prior to AKI onset. Cases were clinically adjudicated, and inter-rater reliability (IRR) was measured using Krippendorff's alpha. Variables associated with DI-AKI were identified using L1 regularized multivariable logistic regression. Model performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC). RESULTS: A total of 314 AKI cases met the eligibility criteria for this analysis, and 271 (86%) cases were adjudicated as DI-AKI. The majority of the AKI cases were recruited from the United States (68%). The most frequent causal nephrotoxic drugs were vancomycin (48.7%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (18.2%), and piperacillin/tazobactam (17.8%). The IRR for DI-AKI adjudication was 0.309. The multivariable model identified age, vascular capacity, hyperglycemia, infections, pyuria, serum creatinine (SCr) trends, and contrast media as significant predictors of DI-AKI with good performance (ROC AUC 0.86). CONCLUSION: The identification of DI-AKI is challenging even with comprehensive adjudication by experienced nephrologists. Our analysis identified key clinical characteristics and outcomes of DI-AKI compared to other AKI etiologies.
  • Feedback control in hemodialysis

    Randhay, Ashveer; Eldehni, Mohamed; Selby, Nicholas
    A number of systems of feedback control during dialysis have been developed, which have the shared characteristic of prospectively measuring physiological parameters and then automatically altering dialysis parameters in real time according to a pre-specified dialysis prescription. These include feedback systems aimed at reducing intradialytic hypotension based on relative blood volume monitoring linked to adjustments in ultrafiltration and dialysate conductivity, and blood temperature monitoring linked to alterations in dialysate temperature. Feedback systems also exist that manipulate sodium balance during dialysis by assessing and adjusting dialysate conductivity. In this review article, we discuss the rationale for automated feedback systems during dialysis, describe how the different feedback systems work, and provide a review of the current evidence on their clinical effectiveness.
  • Serum anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA and prediction of duodenal villous atrophy in adults with suspected coeliac disease without IgA deficiency (Bi.A.CeD): a multicentre, prospective cohort study.

    Holmes, Geoffrey
    BACKGROUND: Whether coeliac disease in adults can be diagnosed with serology alone remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of serum anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA (tTG-IgA) in the diagnosis of coeliac disease. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective cohort study, adult participants (aged ≥18 years) with suspected coeliac disease without IgA deficiency who were not on a gluten-free diet and who had a local serum tTG-IgA measurement, were enrolled from Feb 27, 2018, to Dec 24, 2020, by 14 tertiary referral centres (ten from Europe, two from Asia, one from Oceania, and one from South America) to undergo local endoscopic duodenal biopsy. Local serum tTG-IgA was measured with 14 different test brands and concentration expressed as a multiple of each test's upper limit of normal (ULN), and defined as positive when greater than 1 times the ULN. The main study outcome was the reliability of serum tests for the diagnosis of coeliac disease, as defined by duodenal villous atrophy (Marsh type 3 or Corazza-Villanacci grade B). Histology was evaluated by the local pathologist, with discordant cases (positive tTG-IgA without duodenal villous atrophy or negative tTG-IgA with duodenal villous atrophy) re-evaluated by a central pathologist. The reliability of serum tests for the prediction of duodenal villous atrophy was evaluated according to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for categorical and continuous data. FINDINGS: We enrolled 436 participants with complete local data on serum tTG-IgA and duodenal histology (296 [68%] women and 140 [32%] men; mean age 40 years [SD 15]). Positive serum tTG-IgA was detected in 363 (83%) participants and negative serum tTG-IgA in 73 (17%). Of the 363 participants with positive serum tTG-IgA, 341 had positive histology (true positives) and 22 had negative histology (false positives) after local review. Of the 73 participants with negative serum tTG-IgA, seven had positive histology (false negatives) and 66 had negative histology (true negatives) after local review. The positive predictive value was 93·9% (95% CI 89·2-98·6), the negative predictive value was 90·4% (85·5-95·3), sensitivity was 98·0% (95·3-100·0), and specificity was 75·0% (66·6-83·4). After central re-evaluation of duodenal histology in 29 discordant cases, there were 348 true positive cases, 15 false positive cases, 66 true negative cases, and seven false negative cases, resulting in a positive predictive value of 95·9% (92·0-99·8), a negative predictive value of 90·4% (85·5-95·3), a sensitivity of 98·0% (95·3-100·0), and a specificity of 81·5% (73·9-89·1). Either using the local or central definition of duodenal histology, the positive predictive value of local serum tTG-IgA increased when the serological threshold was defined at increasing multiples of the ULN (p<0·0001). The AUC for serum tTG-IgA for the prediction of duodenal villous atrophy was 0·87 (95% CI 0·81-0·92) when applying the categorical definition of serum tTG-IgA (positive [>1 × ULN] vs negative [≤1 × ULN]), and 0·93 (0·89-0·96) when applying the numerical definition of serum tTG-IgA (multiples of the ULN). Additional endoscopic findings included peptic gastritis (nine patients), autoimmune atrophic gastritis (three), reflux oesophagitis (31), gastric or duodenal ulcer (three), and Barrett's oesophagus (one). In the 1-year follow-up, a midgut ileum lymphoma was diagnosed in a woman on a gluten-free diet. INTERPRETATION: Our data showed that biopsy could be reasonably avoided in the diagnosis of coeliac disease in adults with reliable suspicion of coeliac disease and high serum tTG-IgA. FUNDING: None.
  • Erythematous capillary-lymphatic malformations mimicking blood vascular anomalies.

    Keeley, Vaughan; Riches, Katie
    Superficial erythematous cutaneous vascular malformations are assumed to be blood vascular in origin, but cutaneous lymphatic malformations can contain blood and appear red. Management may be different and so an accurate diagnosis is important. Cutaneous malformations were investigated through 2D histology and 3D whole-mount histology. Two lesions were clinically considered as port-wine birthmarks and another 3 lesions as erythematous telangiectasias. The aims were (i) to demonstrate that cutaneous erythematous malformations including telangiectasia can represent a lymphatic phenotype, (ii) to determine if lesions represent expanded but otherwise normal or malformed lymphatics, and (iii) to determine if the presence of erythrocytes explained the red color. Microscopy revealed all lesions as lymphatic structures. Port-wine birthmarks proved to be cystic lesions, with nonuniform lymphatic marker expression and a disconnected lymphatic network suggesting a lymphatic malformation. Erythematous telangiectasias represented expanded but nonmalformed lymphatics. Blood within lymphatics appeared to explain the color. Blood-lymphatic shunts could be detected in the erythematous telangiectasia. In conclusion, erythematous cutaneous capillary lesions may be lymphatic in origin but clinically indistinguishable from blood vascular malformations. Biopsy is advised for correct phenotyping and management. Erythrocytes are the likely explanation for color accessing lymphatics through lympho-venous shunts.
  • Intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring in adults with type 1 diabetes: A subgroup analysis from the FLASH-UK study.

    Wilmot, Emma
    BACKGROUND: The FLASH-UK trial showed lower HbA1c with intermittently-scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM), as compared with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), in adults with type 1 diabetes and HbA1c ≥58 mmol/mol. (≥ 7.5%). Here we present results from the pre-specified subgroup analysis for the 24-week HbA1c (primary outcome) and selected sensor-based secondary outcomes. METHODS: This was a multicentre, parallel-design, randomised controlled trial. The difference in treatment effect between subgroups (baseline HbA1c (≤75 vs >75 mmol/mol (≤9.0 vs > 9.0%), treatment modality (pump vs injections), prior participation in structured education, age, educational level, impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia, deprivation index quintile sex, ethnic group, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) detected depression category) were evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-six participants [females 44%, mean (SD) baseline HbA1c 71 (9) mmol/mol 8.6(0.8%), age 44 (15)] were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio to isCGM (n=78) or SMBG (n=78). The mean (SD) baseline HbA1c (%) was 8.7 (0.9) in the isCGM group and 8.5 (0.8) in the SMBG group, lowering to 7.9 (0.8) vs 8.3 (0.9) respectively at 24 weeks (adjusted mean difference -0.5, 95% confidence interval[CI] -0.7 to -0.3; p<0.001]. For HbA1c, there was no impact of treatment modality, prior participation in structured education, deprivation index quintile, sex or baseline depression category. The between-group difference in HbA1c was larger for younger people [a reduction of 2.7 (95%CI 0.3 to 5.0; p=0.028) mmol/mol for every additional 15 years of age]. Those with HbA1c 76-97 mmol/mol (>9.0-11.0%) had a marginally non-significant higher reduction in HbA1c of 8.4 mmol/mol (3.3 to 13.5) compared to 3.1 (0.3 to 6.0) in those with HbA1c 58-75mmol/mol (p=0.08). For "Time in range" (% 3.9 to 10 mmol/l), the difference was larger for those with at least a bachelor's degree. For "Time below range" (% <3.9 mmol/l), the difference was larger for those using injections, older people, and those with less than bachelor's degree. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittently-scanned continuous glucose monitoring is generally effective across a range of baseline characteristics.
  • Renal medicine in the intensive care unit: a narrative review.

    Horne, Kerry; Selby, Nicholas
    Kidney disease, both acute and chronic, is commonly encountered on the intensive care unit. Due to the role the kidneys play in whole body homeostasis, it follows that their dysfunction has wide-ranging implications and can affect prescribing and therapeutic management. This narrative review discusses the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease, and how this relates to critically unwell patients. We cover several aspects of the management of renal dysfunction on the critical care unit, exploring some of the recurrent themes within the literature, including type and timing of kidney replacement therapy, management of acute kidney injury, as well as discussing how novel biomarkers for acute kidney injury may help to identify patients suffering from acute kidney injury as well as risk stratifying these patients. We discuss how early involvement of specialist nephrology services can improve outcomes in patients with kidney disease as well as offer valuable diagnostic and specialist management advice, particularly for patients with established end stage kidney disease and patients who are already known to nephrology services. We also explore some of the ongoing research questions that need to be answered within this arena.
  • In severe alcohol-related hepatitis, acute kidney injury is prevalent, associated with mortality independent of liver disease severity, and can be predicted using IL-8 and micro-RNAs.

    Austin, Andrew
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence, prediction and impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) in alcohol-related hepatitis (AH) is uncertain. AIMS: We aimed to determine AKI incidence; association with mortality; evaluate serum biomarkers and the modifying effects of prednisolone and pentoxifylline in the largest AH cohort to date. METHODS: Participants in the Steroids or Pentoxifylline for Alcoholic Hepatitis trial with day zero (D0) creatinine available were included. AKI was defined by modified International Club of Ascites criteria; incident AKI as day 7 (D7) AKI without D0-AKI. Survival was compared by Kaplan-Meier; mortality associations by Cox regression; associations with AKI by binary logistic regression; biomarkers by AUROC analyses. RESULTS: D0-AKI was present in 198/1051 (19%) participants; incident AKI developed in a further 119/571 (21%) with available data. Participants with D0-AKI had higher 90-day mortality than those without (32% vs. 25%, p = 0.008), as did participants with incident AKI compared to those without D0-AKI or incident AKI (47% vs. 25%, p < 0.001). Incident AKI was associated with D90 mortality adjusted for age and discriminant function (AHR 2.15, 1.56-2.97, p < 0.001); D0-AKI was not. Prednisolone therapy reduced incident AKI (AOR 0.55, 0.36-0.85, p = 0.007) but not mortality. D0 bilirubin and IL-8 combined, miR-6826-5p, and miR-6811-3p predicted incident AKI (AUROCs 0.726, 0.821, 0.770, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Incident AKI is associated with 90-day mortality independent of liver function. Prednisolone therapy was associated with reduced incident AKI. IL-8 and several miRNAs are potential biomarkers to predict AKI. Novel therapies to prevent incident AKI should be evaluated in AH to reduce mortality.
  • Associations with age and glomerular filtration rate in a referred population with chronic kidney disease: Methods and baseline data from a UK multicentre cohort study (NURTuRE-CKD).

    Taal, Maarten; Lucas, Bethany
    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common but heterogenous and is associated with multiple adverse outcomes. The National Unified Renal Translational Research Enterprise (NURTuRE)-CKD cohort was established to investigate risk factors for clinically important outcomes in persons with CKD referred to secondary care. METHODS: Eligible participants with CKD stages G3-4 or stages G1-2 plus albuminuria > 30 mg/mmol were enrolled from 16 nephrology centres in England, Scotland and Wales from 2017 to 2019. Baseline assessment included demographic data, routine laboratory data and research samples. Clinical outcomes are being collected over 15 years by the UK Renal Registry using established data linkage. Baseline data are presented with subgroup analysis by age, sex and estimated GFR (eGFR). RESULTS: 2996 participants were enrolled. Median (interquartile range) age was 66 (54 to 74) years, 58.5% were male, eGFR 33.8 (24.0 to 46.6) ml/min/1.73m2 and UACR 209 (33 to 926) mg/g. 1883 participants (69.1%) were in high-risk CKD categories. Primary renal diagnosis was CKD of unknown cause in 32.3%, glomerular disease in 23.4% and diabetic kidney disease in 11.5%. Older participants and those with lower eGFR had higher systolic blood pressure and were less likely to be treated with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) but were more likely to receive a statin. Female participants were less likely to receive a RASi or statin. CONCLUSIONS: NURTuRE-CKD is a prospective cohort of persons who are at relatively high risk of adverse outcomes. Long-term follow-up and a large biorepository create opportunities for research to improve risk prediction and investigate underlying mechanisms to inform new treatment development.
  • Exploring the variability of sarcopenia prevalence in a research population using different disease definitions.

    Willott, Ruth; Gordon, Adam L
    BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of muscle mass and function with age. A number of different sarcopenia definitions have been proposed and utilised in research. This study aimed to investigate how the prevalence of sarcopenia in a research cohort of older adults is influenced by the use of independent aspects of these different definitions. METHODS: Data from 255 research participants were compiled. Defining criteria by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health were applied. RESULTS: Prevalence of sarcopenia using muscle mass ranged from 4 to 22%. Gait speed and handgrip strength criteria identified 4-34% and 4-16% of participants as sarcopenic, respectively. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of sarcopenia differs substantially depending on the criteria used. Work is required to address the impact of this for sarcopenia research to be usefully translated to inform on clinical practice.
  • Blood pressure targets in chronic kidney disease: still no consensus.

    Taal, Maarten; Lucas, Bethany
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite a strong consensus that treatment of hypertension is fundamental to strategies seeking to slow chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and reduce the associated risk of cardiovascular events (CVE), controversy persists regarding optimal blood pressure (BP) targets. This article reviews the evidence for different targets, discusses associated controversies and suggests approaches to improve BP control. RECENT FINDINGS: Landmark clinical trials established the principle that lower BP targets are associated with slower progression of CKD in people with a greater magnitude of proteinuria and previous guidelines recommended a target BP of <130/80 mmHg for those with proteinuria. However, the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial provided new evidence that a systolic BP target of <120 mmHg was associated with a reduced risk of CVE, though there was no impact on CKD progression and there was concern about an increase in renal adverse events. Nevertheless, 2021 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommended systolic BP <120 mmHg, though other updated guidelines did not follow this trend. All guidelines emphasise the importance of standardised BP measurement and a personalised approach. SUMMARY: An individualised and shared decision-making approach to BP target setting and management is recommended, guided by standardised BP measurement.

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