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  • Safety and effectiveness of Do-It-Yourself Artificial Pancreas System (DIYAPS) compared with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions (CSII) in combination with Free Style Libre (FSL) in people with Type 1 diabetes.

    Crabtree, T; Taylor, Nick; Langeland, L; Wilmot, Emma; Idris, Iskandar
    The use of do-it-yourself artificial pancreas systems (DIYAPS) amongst people with type 1 diabetes is increasing. At present, it is unclear DIYAPS comepares to other technologies such as FreeStyle Libre (FSL) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). The aim of this analysis is to compare safety, effectiveness and quality of life outcomes of DIYAPS use with the addition of FSL to CSII. METHOD: Data from two large UK hospitals were extracted from the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) DIYAPS and FSL audits. Outcomes included HbA1c, glucose TBR (time-below-range), TIR (time-in-range), Diabetes Distress Scores (DDS) and Gold hypoglycaemia Score. Any adverse events were noted. Changes at follow-up were assessed using paired t-tests and ANOVA in Stata; TIR/TBR at follow-up assessed using unpaired T-Tests; Chi-square tests assessed the change in frequency of health utilisation (e.g. hospital admissions). RESULTS: DIYAPS (n=35) and FSL+CSII (n=149) users, with median follow-up duration of 1.4 (IQR 0.8-2.1) and 1.3 (IQR 0.7-1.8) years respectively, were included. HbA1c with DIYAPS use changed by -10mmol/mol [0.9%] (p<0.001, 95% CI 5, 14 [0.5, 1.3%]) significantly lower (p<0.001) than in the FSL+CSII group -3 mmol/mol [0.25%] (p<0.001, 95% CI 1, 4 [0.1, 0.4%]). TIR was higher and TBR was lower in the DIYAPS group. Adverse events were rare in both groups and no significant differences were observed in the frequency of healthcare utilisation. CONCLUSION: DIYAPS use was associated with a lower HbA1c levels, higher TIR and lower TBR compared to FSL+CSII. There was no significant increase in adverse events, although this should be interpreted cautiously given the low numbers of users. Full results from the ABCD DIYAPS audit are awaited.
  • Patients’ experiences of cannulation of arteriovenous access for haemodialysis: A qualitative systematic review

    Fielding, Catherine; Toft, Suzanne
    Introduction: Cannulation is an essential part of haemodialysis with arteriovenous access. Patients’ experiences of cannulation for haemodialysis are problematic but poorly understood. This review aims to synthesise findings related to patients’ experiences of cannulation for haemodialysis from qualitative studies, providing a fuller description of this phenomenon. Methods: Eligibility criteria defined the inclusion of studies with a population of patients with end-stage kidney disease on haemodialysis. The phenomena of interest was findings related to patients’ experiences of cannulation for haemodialysis and the context was both in-centre and home haemodialysis. MedLine, CINAHL, EMBASE, EMCARE, BNI, PsycInfo and PubMed were last searched between 20/05/2019 and 23/05/2019. The quality of studies was assessed using the using Joanna Briggs Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research. Meta-aggregation was used to synthesise findings and CERQual to assess the strength of accumulated findings. Results: This review included 26 studies. The subject of included studies covered cannulation, pain, experiences of vascular access, experiences of haemodialysis and a research priority setting exercise. From these studies, three themes were meta-aggregated: (1) Cannulation for haemodialysis is an unpleasant, abnormal and unique procedure associated with pain, abnormal appearance, vulnerability and dependency. (2) The necessity of cannulation for haemodialysis emphasises the unpleasantness of the procedure. Success had multiple meanings for patients and patients worry about whether the needle insertion will be successful. (3) Patients survive unpleasant, necessary and repetitive cannulation by learning to tolerate cannulation and exerting control over the procedure. Feeling safe can help them tolerate cannulation better and the cannulator can invoke feeling safe. However, some patients still avoid cannulation, due to its unpleasantness. Conclusions: Cannulation is a pervasive procedure that impacts on patients’ experiences of haemodialysis. This review illuminates further patients’ experiences of cannulation for haemodialysis, indicating how improvements can be made to cannulation. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42019134583)
  • Mentorship in Dermatology-A Beginner's Guide

    Narang, I
    Mentoring albeit is a recently described and popular phenomenon in medicine, is not a new one. All medical specialties have a complex, intertwined relationship between their physicians and trainees who are in different stages of their careers. How a specialty evolves depends on the thread woven by these relationships. This article outlines the concept of mentorship and introduces its various aspects in dermatology. This article attempts to answer what, why, how, when, and where related to mentoring in dermatology, including e-mentorship. The article also includes personal reflections of the authors who are involved in this process
  • Special Low Protein Foods Prescribed in England for PKU Patients: An Analysis of Prescribing Patterns and Cost.

    Mackenzie, A (2021)
    Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) are reliant on special low protein foods (SLPFs) as part of their dietary treatment. In England, several issues regarding the accessibility of SLPFs through the national prescribing system have been highlighted. Therefore, prescribing patterns and expenditure on all SLPFs available on prescription in England (n = 142) were examined. Their costs in comparison to regular protein-containing (n = 182) and 'free-from' products (n = 135) were also analysed. Similar foods were grouped into subgroups (n = 40). The number of units and costs of SLPFs prescribed in total and per subgroup from January to December 2020 were calculated using National Health Service (NHS) Business Service Authority (NHSBSA) ePACT2 (electronic Prescribing Analysis and Cost Tool) for England. Monthly patient SLPF units prescribed were calculated using patient numbers with PKU and non-PKU inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) consuming SLPFs. This was compared to the National Society for PKU (NSPKU) prescribing guidance. Ninety-eight percent of SLPF subgroups (n = 39/40) were more expensive than regular and 'free-from' food subgroups. However, costs to prescribe SLPFs are significantly less than theoretical calculations. From January to December 2020, 208,932 units of SLPFs were prescribed (excluding milk replacers), costing the NHS £2,151,973 (including milk replacers). This equates to £962 per patient annually, and prescribed amounts are well below the upper limits suggested by the NSPKU, indicating under prescribing of SLPFs. It is recommended that a simpler and improved system should be implemented. Ideally, specialist metabolic dietitians should have responsibility for prescribing SLPFs. This would ensure that patients with PKU have the necessary access to their essential dietary treatment, which, in turn, should help promote dietary adherence and improve metabolic control.
  • Biomarkers During Recovery From AKI and Prediction of Long-term Reductions in Estimated GFR.

    Packington, Rebecca; Shaw, Susan; Akani, A; Selby, Nicholas (2021)
    RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The effects of acute kidney injury (AKI) on long-term kidney function, cardiovascular disease, and mortality are well documented. We aimed to identify biomarkers for estimating the risk of new or worsening chronic kidney disease (CKD) following AKI. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adults from a single clinical center who developed AKI between May 2013 and May 2016, and survived until 3 years after the hospitalization during which AKI occurred. Participants included those with and without pre-existing CKD. PREDICTORS: Panel of 11 plasma biomarkers measured 3-months after hospitalisation. OUTCOME: Kidney disease progression, defined as a ≥25% decline in eGFR combined with a decline in CKD stage, assessed three years after the occurrence of AKI. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Associations between biomarkers and kidney disease progression were evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models. Importance of predictor variables was assessed by constructing multiple decision trees, with penalised Lasso logistic regression for variable selection used to produce multivariable models. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients were studied. Soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1), sTNFR2, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), three-month eGFR and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) were independently associated with kidney disease progression and were more important than AKI severity or duration. A multivariable model containing sTNFR1, sTNFR2, cystatin C and eGFR discriminated between those with and without kidney disease progression (AUC 0.79, 95% CI 0.7-0.83). Optimising the cut-point to maximise utility as a 'rule-out' test to identify those at low risk increased the sensitivity of the model to 95% and its negative predictive value to 92%. LIMITATIONS: Lack of external validation cohort. Analyses limited to patients surviving for 3 years after AKI. Mixed population of patients with and without baseline CKD. CONCLUSIONS: A panel of plasma biomarkers measured 3-months after discharge from a hospitalization complicated by AKI provides potential opportunity to identify patients who are at very low risk of incident or worsening CKD. Further study is required to determine its clinical utility through independent prospective validation.
  • Clinical predictors of outcome in patients with infective endocarditis receiving outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT).

    Durojaiye, OC
    OBJECTIVES: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is increasingly used to treat infective endocarditis (IE) with documented success. This study aims to identify risk factors for treatment failure and poor outcomes in patients with IE treated through OPAT. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all episodes of IE treated over 13 years (September 2006 - September 2019) at a large teaching hospital in Sheffield, UK. We defined OPAT failure as unplanned readmission or death within 30 days of discharge from the OPAT service. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as a composite of IE-related death, cardiac surgery, and recurrence of IE within the first year of completion of OPAT. RESULTS: Overall, 168 episodes of IE were reviewed. OPAT failure and MACE occurred in 44 episodes (26.2%) and 29 episodes (17.3%) respectively. On multivariable analysis, pre-existing renal failure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-8.30; P = 0.034) and Charlson comorbidity score (aOR, 1.29 per unit increase; 95% CI, 1.06-1.57; P = 0.011) were associated with increased risk of failure. Previous endocarditis (aOR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.49-8.70; P = 0.004) and cardiac complications (aOR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.49-9.93; P = 0.005) were risk factors for MACE, whereas cardiac surgery during the initial hospitalisation for IE (aOR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12-0.22; P <0.001) was a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that OPAT is safe and effective for completing antibiotic treatment for IE, including cases deemed to be at increased risk of complications. However, careful patient selection and monitoring of patients with pre-existing comorbidities and cardiac complications are recommended to optimise clinical outcomes.
  • Clinical associations with stage B heart failure in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Wilmot, Emma (2021-07)
    BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of asymptomatic (American Heart Association Stage B) heart failure (SBHF) in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to identify associations between clinical characteristics and markers of SBHF in adults with T2D, which may allow therapeutic interventions prior to symptom onset. METHODS: Adults with T2D from a multi-ethnic population with no prevalent cardiovascular disease [n = 247, age 52 ± 12 years, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 7.4 ± 1.1% (57 ± 12 mmol/mol), duration of diabetes 61 (32, 120) months] underwent echocardiography and adenosine stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify independent associations between clinical characteristics and markers of SBHF. RESULTS: In a series of multivariable linear regression models containing age, sex, ethnicity, smoking history, number of glucose-lowering agents, systolic blood pressure (BP) duration of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, serum creatinine, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, independent associations with: left ventricular mass:volume were age (β = 0.024), number of glucose-lowering agents (β = 0.022) and systolic BP (β = 0.027); global longitudinal strain were never smoking (β = -1.196), systolic BP (β = 0.328), and BMI (β = -0.348); myocardial perfusion reserve were age (β = -0.364) and male sex (β = 0.458); and aortic distensibility were age (β = -0.629) and systolic BP (β = -0.348). HbA1c was not independently associated with any marker of SBHF. CONCLUSIONS: In asymptomatic adults with T2D, age, systolic BP, BMI, and smoking history, but not glycaemic control, are the major determinants of SBHF. Given BP and BMI are modifiable, these may be important targets to reduce the development of symptomatic heart failure.
  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound assessed renal microvascular perfusion may predict postoperative renal complications following colorectal surgery.

    Read, David; Doleman, Brett; Heinink, Thomas; Selby, Nicholas; Lund, Jonathan; Phillips, Bethan; Williams, John P
    Colorectal surgery is associated with an above-average mortality rate of ~15%. During surgery, maintenance of vital organ perfusion is essential in order to reduce postoperative mortality and morbidity, with renal perfusion of particular importance. Oesophageal Doppler monitors (ODM) are commonly used to try and provide accurate measures of fluid depletion during surgery, however it is unclear to what extent they reflect organ perfusion. In addition, it is not known whether macro- and/ or microvascular perfusion indices are associated with renal complications following colorectal surgery. Thirty-two participants scheduled for colorectal surgery had three measures of macro- and microvascular renal blood flow via contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and simultaneous measures of cardiac output indicies via ODM: i) pre-operatively; ii) intra-operatively at the mid-point of operation, and iii) after the conclusion of surgery. The Postoperative Morbidity Survey (POMS) was used to assess postoperative complications. Intra-operatively, there was a significant correlation between renal microvascular flow (RT) and renal macrovascular flow (TTI) (rho=0.52; p=0.003). Intra-operative TTI, but not RT, was associated with cardiac index (rho= -0.50; p=0.0003). Intra-operative RT predicted increases in renal complications (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.09) with good discrimination (C-statistic, 0.85). Complications were not predicted by TTI or ODM-derived indices. There was no relationship between RT and TTI before or after surgery. ODM measures of haemodynamic status do not correlate with renal microvascular blood flow, and as such are likely not suitable to determine vital organ perfusion. Only CEUS-derived measures of microvascular perfusion were predictive of postoperative renal complications.
  • External validity and clinical usefulness of a risk prediction model for 30 day unplanned hospitalization in patients receiving outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy.

    Durojaiye, OC
    OBJECTIVES: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is increasingly used to treat a variety of infections. However, hospital readmissions remain relatively common. We examined the external validity and clinical usefulness of a previously derived risk prediction model for 30 day unplanned hospitalization in patients receiving OPAT. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at two large teaching hospitals in the UK. The design comprised quasi-external temporal validation on patients from the same OPAT setting as the model development, and broader external validation on patients from a different setting. The model predictors were age, prior hospitalizations in the preceding 12 months, Charlson comorbidity score, concurrent IV antimicrobial therapy, type of infection and mode of OPAT treatment. Discriminative ability, calibration and clinical usefulness were assessed. RESULTS: Data from 2578 OPAT patients were analysed. The rates of 30 day unplanned hospitalization were 11.5% (123/1073), 12.9% (140/1087) and 25.4% (106/418) in the model derivation, temporal validation and broader external validation cohorts, respectively. The discriminative ability of the prediction model was adequate on temporal validation (c-statistic 0.75; 95% CI: 0.71-0.79) and acceptable on broader validation (c-statistic 0.67; 95% CI: 0.61-0.73). In both external cohorts, the model displayed excellent calibration between observed and predicted probabilities. Decision curve analysis showed increased net benefit across a range of meaningful risk thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: A simple risk prediction model for unplanned readmission in OPAT patients demonstrated reproducible predictive performance, broad clinical transportability and clinical usefulness. This model may help improve OPAT outcomes through better identification of high-risk patients and provision of tailored care.
  • Prognostic models of survival in patients with advanced incurable cancer: the PiPS2 observational study.

    Keeley, Vaughan
    BACKGROUND: The Prognosis in Palliative care Study (PiPS) prognostic survival models predict survival in patients with incurable cancer. PiPS-A (Prognosis in Palliative care Study - All), which involved clinical observations only, and PiPS-B (Prognosis in Palliative care Study - Blood), which additionally required blood test results, consist of 14- and 56-day models that combine to create survival risk categories: 'days', 'weeks' and 'months+'. OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives were to compare PIPS-B risk categories against agreed multiprofessional estimates of survival and to validate PiPS-A and PiPS-B. The secondary objectives were to validate other prognostic models, to assess the acceptability of the models to patients, carers and health-care professionals and to identify barriers to and facilitators of clinical use. DESIGN: This was a national, multicentre, prospective, observational, cohort study with a nested qualitative substudy using interviews with patients, carers and health-care professionals. SETTING: Community, hospital and hospice palliative care services across England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: For the validation study, the participants were adults with incurable cancer, with or without capacity to consent, who had been recently referred to palliative care services and had sufficient English language. For the qualitative substudy, a subset of participants in the validation study took part, along with informal carers, patients who declined to participate in the main study and health-care professionals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For the validation study, the primary outcomes were survival, clinical prediction of survival and PiPS-B risk category predictions. The secondary outcomes were predictions of PiPS-A and other prognostic models. For the qualitative substudy, the main outcomes were participants' views about prognostication and the use of prognostic models. RESULTS: For the validation study, 1833 participants were recruited. PiPS-B risk categories were as accurate as agreed multiprofessional estimates of survival (61%; p = 0.851). Discrimination of the PiPS-B 14-day model (c-statistic 0.837, 95% confidence interval 0.810 to 0.863) and the PiPS-B 56-day model (c-statistic 0.810, 95% confidence interval 0.788 to 0.832) was excellent. The PiPS-B 14-day model showed some overfitting (calibration in the large -0.202, 95% confidence interval -0.364 to -0.039; calibration slope 0.840, 95% confidence interval 0.730 to 0.950). The PiPS-B 56-day model was well-calibrated (calibration in the large 0.152, 95% confidence interval 0.030 to 0.273; calibration slope 0.914, 95% confidence interval 0.808 to 1.02). PiPS-A risk categories were less accurate than agreed multiprofessional estimates of survival (p < 0.001). The PiPS-A 14-day model (c-statistic 0.825, 95% confidence interval 0.803 to 0.848; calibration in the large -0.037, 95% confidence interval -0.168 to 0.095; calibration slope 0.981, 95% confidence interval 0.872 to 1.09) and the PiPS-A 56-day model (c-statistic 0.776, 95% confidence interval 0.755 to 0.797; calibration in the large 0.109, 95% confidence interval 0.002 to 0.215; calibration slope 0.946, 95% confidence interval 0.842 to 1.05) had excellent or reasonably good discrimination and calibration. Other prognostic models were also validated. Where comparisons were possible, the other prognostic models performed less well than PiPS-B. For the qualitative substudy, 32 health-care professionals, 29 patients and 20 carers were interviewed. The majority of patients and carers expressed a desire for prognostic information and said that PiPS could be helpful. Health-care professionals said that PiPS was user friendly and may be helpful for decision-making and care-planning. The need for a blood test for PiPS-B was considered a limitation. LIMITATIONS: The results may not be generalisable to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: PiPS-B risk categories are as accurate as agreed multiprofessional estimates of survival. PiPS-A categories are less accurate. Patients, carers and health-care professionals regard PiPS as potentially helpful in clinical practice. FUTURE WORK: A study to evaluate the impact of introducing PiPS into routine clinical practice is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13688211. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 28. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
  • Simultaneous multifocal intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in the setting of long-term cocaine usage.

    Basi, Saajan
    A 45-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to hospital following a collapse at home. On admission, this patient was noted to have a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) Score of 9 out of 15, fever and tachypnoea. The patient was identified to have bilateral limb weakness, predominately on the left side, with associated dysphagia. Radiological imaging demonstrated bilateral multifocal intracranial haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Neurosurgical input was sought; the outcome of this was a decision to manage the patient conservatively, without surgical intervention. Of note, his urine drug testing revealed a positive result for a cocktail of drugs including cocaine, benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite), methadone, heroin, norbuprenorphine and benzodiazepine. Throughout the admission, the patient was monitored in an intensive care setting. The patient received support with feeding, speech and mobilisation. The patients' GCS improved throughout the admission. Following a 30-day admission, the patient walked home.
  • Splinter haemorrhages and brain infarcts as an unusual presentation of sarcoidosis

    Ayub, Shazeen; Hawari, Rand; Mahmood-Rao, Hamzah
    We present an interesting case of a healthy 47-year-old woman who presented to the acute take with symptoms of visual apraxia, splinter haemorrhages and extreme fatigue. This was a diagnostic challenge with other unusual features to this case, which includes brain infarcts on MRI, raised troponin and oeosinophilia. Naturally endocarditis was the top differential but this was ruled out by serial negative blood cultures and a negative transthoracic echocardiogram. Several medical specialties were involved and the initial working diagnosis was ANCA vasculitis (oeosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis). Early administration of intravenous steroids clouded our judgement further and sarcoidosis was not thought as a possible differential. We illustrate the immensely challenging and complicated clinical course involving multiple specialties and investigations. In the end, a complete steroid wean was required to reach an accurate histological diagnosis.
  • Impact of malnutrition on health-related quality of life in persons receiving dialysis: a prospective study.

    Pittman, Zoe; Selby, Nicholas; Taal, Maarten
    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is severely impaired in persons receiving dialysis. Malnutrition has been associated with some measures of poor HRQoL in cross-sectional analyses in dialysis populations, but no studies have assessed the impact of malnutrition and dietary intake on change in multiple measures of HRQoL over time. We investigated the most important determinants of poor HRQoL and the predictors of change in HRQoL over time using several measures of HRQoL. We enrolled 119 haemodialysis and 31 peritoneal dialysis patients in this prospective study. Nutritional assessments (Subjective Global Assessment [SGA], anthropometry and 24-hour dietary recalls) and HRQoL questionnaires (Short Form-36 [SF-36] mental [MCS] and physical component scores [PCS] and European QoL-5 Dimensions [EQ5D] health state [HSS] and visual analogue scores [VAS]) were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Mean age was 64(14) years. Malnutrition was present in 37% of the population. At baseline, malnutrition assessed by SGA was the only factor independently (and negatively) associated with all four measures of HRQoL. No single factor was independently associated with decrease in all measures of HRQoL over 1 year. However, prevalence/development of malnutrition over one year was an independent predictor of 1-year decrease in EQ5D HSS and 1-year decrease in fat intake independently predicted the 1-year decline in SF-36 MCS and PCS, and EQ5D VAS. These findings strengthen the importance of monitoring for malnutrition and providing nutritional advice to all persons on dialysis. Future studies are needed to evaluate the impact of nutritional interventions on HRQoL and other long-term outcomes.
  • Acid Reflux Is Common in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease After One-Anastomosis Gastric Bypass.

    Krivan, Sylvia
    INTRODUCTION: Patients with one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) can develop gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The nature of this GERD (acid or biliary) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the nature of GERD via impedance pH testing in patients presenting with reflux post OAGB. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of 43 patients with OAGB backgrounds who developed postoperative GERD and were investigated with impedance pH monitoring between 2006 and 2019. RESULTS: Mean age was 52.48 ± 9 years. Mean body mass index (BMI) prior to OAGB was 46.82 kg/m2. None of these patients had clinical GERD before surgery. The median time interval between surgery and investigation with 24-h impedance pH monitoring was 64 (56) months. The mean BMI at the time of investigations was 32.67 ± 6.9 kg/m2. The type of reflux was acid in 13 (30.2%), non-acid (biliary) in 12 (27.9%), and mixed (acid and biliary) in 5 (11.6%) patients. However, it remained not confirmed in 13 (30.2%). Median DeMeester score was 48.95 (27.67) in patients with acid, 2.8 (7.4) in patients with biliary, and 28.7 (5.6) in patients with mixed reflux. Median percent of time spent with pH < 4 was 9.65 (8) in patients with acid, 0.6 (1.75) in patients with biliary, and 7.7 (3.9) in patients with mixed reflux. CONCLUSION: Acid reflux seems to be as common as bile reflux in patients presenting with GERD after OAGB. In case of revisional surgery for severe GERD post OAGB, 24-h impedance pH monitoring could be essential to determine the surgical procedure of choice.
  • Azithromycin versus standard care in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 (ATOMIC2): an open-label, randomised trial.

    Johnson, Graham
    BACKGROUND: The antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties of azithromycin suggest therapeutic potential against COVID-19. Randomised data in mild-to-moderate disease are not available. We assessed whether azithromycin is effective in reducing hospital admission in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective, open-label, randomised superiority trial was done at 19 hospitals in the UK. We enrolled adults aged at least 18 years presenting to hospitals with clinically diagnosed, highly probable or confirmed COVID-19 infection, with fewer than 14 days of symptoms, who were considered suitable for initial ambulatory management. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to azithromycin (500 mg once daily orally for 14 days) plus standard care or to standard care alone. The primary outcome was death or hospital admission from any cause over the 28 days from randomisation. The primary and safety outcomes were assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial is registered at (NCT04381962) and recruitment is closed. FINDINGS: 298 participants were enrolled from June 3, 2020, to Jan 29, 2021. Three participants withdrew consent and requested removal of all data, and three further participants withdrew consent after randomisation, thus, the primary outcome was assessed in 292 participants (145 in the azithromycin group and 147 in the standard care group). The mean age of the participants was 45·9 years (SD 14·9). 15 (10%) participants in the azithromycin group and 17 (12%) in the standard care group were admitted to hospital or died during the study (adjusted OR 0·91 [95% CI 0·43-1·92], p=0·80). No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 managed without hospital admission, adding azithromycin to standard care treatment did not reduce the risk of subsequent hospital admission or death. Our findings do not support the use of azithromycin in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford and Pfizer.
  • Persistent cortical blindness following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) as a complication of COVID-19 pneumonia

    Elhassan, Mohamed; Saidahmed, Ola (2021-01)
    The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic emerged in China in December 2019. Since then, there have been growing reports of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases with neurological involvement. We present a case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, complicated by a prolonged intensive care stay and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). This resulted in persistent cortical blindness (Anton's syndrome). PRES has only rarely been reported in relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection and no patients have developed persistent cortical blindness. We summarise the clinical presentation of the patient and review the current literature.
  • Survival prediction algorithms for COVID-19 patients admitted to a UK district general hospital

    Fernandez, Ancy; Obiechina, Nonyelum; Koh, Justin; Hong, Anna; Nandi, Angela; Reynolds, Tim (2021-01)
    Objective: To collect and review data from consecutive patients admitted to Queen's Hospital, Burton on Trent for treatment of Covid-19 infection, with the aim of developing a predictive algorithm that can help identify those patients likely to survive. Design: Consecutive patient data were collected from all admissions to hospital for treatment of Covid-19. Data were manually extracted from the electronic patient record for statistical analysis. Results: Data, including outcome data (discharged alive/died), were extracted for 487 consecutive patients, admitted for treatment. Overall, patients who died were older, had very significantly lower Oxygen saturation (SpO2) on admission, required a higher inspired Oxygen concentration (IpO2) and higher CRP as evidenced by a Bonferroni-corrected (P < 0.0056). Evaluated individually, platelets and lymphocyte count were not statistically significant but when used in a logistic regression to develop a predictive score, platelet count did add predictive value. The 5-parameter prediction algorithm we developed was: [Formula: see text] CONCLUSION: Age, IpO2 on admission, CRP, platelets and number of lungs consolidated were effective marker combinations that helped identify patients who would be likely to survive. The AUC under the ROC Plot was 0.8129 (95% confidence interval 0.0.773 - 0.853; P < .001).

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