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  • Redefining WILD syndrome: a primary lymphatic dysplasia with congenital multisegmental lymphoedema, cutaneous lymphovascular malformation, CD4 lymphopaenia and warts.

    Keeley, Vaughan;
    BACKGROUND: Primary lymphoedema (PL) syndromes are increasingly recognised as presentations of complex genetic disease, with at least 20 identified causative genes. Recognition of clinical patterns is key to diagnosis, research and therapeutics. The defining criteria for one such clinical syndrome, 'WILD syndrome' (Warts, Immunodeficiency, Lymphoedema and anogenital Dysplasia), have previously depended on a single case report. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present 21 patients (including the first described case) with similar clinical and immunological phenotypes. All had PL affecting multiple segments, with systemic involvement (intestinal lymphangiectasia/pleural or pericardial effusions) in 70% (n=14/20). Most (n=20, 95%) had a distinctive cutaneous lymphovascular malformation on the upper anterior chest wall. Some (n=10, 48%) also had hyperpigmented lesions resembling epidermal naevi (but probably lymphatic in origin). Warts were common (n=17, 81%) and often refractory. In contrast to the previous case report, anogenital dysplasia was uncommon-only found in two further cases (total n=3, 14%). Low CD4 counts and CD4:CD8 ratios typified the syndrome (17 of 19, 89%), but monocyte counts were universally normal, unlike GATA2 deficiency. CONCLUSION: WILD syndrome is a previously unrecognised, underdiagnosed generalised PL syndrome. Based on this case series, we redefine WILD as 'Warts, Immunodeficiency, andLymphatic Dysplasia' and suggest specific diagnostic criteria. The essential criterion is congenital multisegmental PL in a 'mosaic' distribution. The major diagnostic features are recurrent warts, cutaneous lymphovascular malformations, systemic involvement (lymphatic dysplasia), genital swelling and CD4 lymphopaenia with normal monocyte counts. The absence of family history suggests a sporadic condition, and the random distribution of swelling implicates mosaic postzygotic mutation as the cause.
  • Impact of malnutrition on health-related quality of life in persons receiving dialysis: a prospective study.

    Pittman, Zoe; Selby, Nicholas; Taal, Maarten
    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is severely impaired in persons receiving dialysis. Malnutrition has been associated with some measures of poor HRQoL in cross-sectional analyses in dialysis populations, but no studies have assessed the impact of malnutrition and dietary intake on change in multiple measures of HRQoL over time. We investigated the most important determinants of poor HRQoL and the predictors of change in HRQoL over time using several measures of HRQoL. We enrolled 119 haemodialysis and thirty-one peritoneal dialysis patients in this prospective study. Nutritional assessments (Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), anthropometry and 24-h dietary recalls) and HRQoL questionnaires (Short Form-36 (SF-36) mental (MCS) and physical component scores (PCS) and European QoL-5 Dimensions (EQ5D) health state (HSS) and visual analogue scores (VAS)) were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Mean age was 64 (14) years. Malnutrition was present in 37 % of the population. At baseline, malnutrition assessed by SGA was the only factor independently (and negatively) associated with all four measures of HRQoL. No single factor was independently associated with decrease in all measures of HRQoL over 1 year. However, prevalence/development of malnutrition over 1 year was an independent predictor of 1-year decrease in EQ5D HSS, and 1-year decrease in fat intake independently predicted the 1-year decline in SF-36 MCS and PCS, and EQ5D VAS. These findings strengthen the importance of monitoring for malnutrition and providing nutritional advice to all persons on dialysis. Future studies are needed to evaluate the impact of nutritional interventions on HRQoL and other long-term outcomes.
  • Taking the biscuit: defining excessive quantities of free refreshments in a healthcare library

    Tabner, Andrew; Johnson, Graham; White, Caroline; Toft, Suzanne
    Evidence suggests that complementary hot drinks and biscuits benefit an overworked and highly stressed healthcare workforce. But when signage in healthcare libraries asks patrons not to consume “excessive” quantities of free hot drinks and biscuits, how much is too much? Tabner and colleagues explore this resource allocation conundrum
  • Evaluating the results of MyTEMP, a cluster randomised trial of lower temperature haemodialysis: the end of a cool idea?

    Selby, Nicholas; Taal, Maarten
    Conflict of interest statement: NMS reports grants from the UK National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health and Social Care Delivery Research programme, NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme (unrelated to the topic of this comment), and Kidney Research UK (validation of an algorithm for real-time prediction of intradialytic hypotension using continuous non-invasive blood pressure monitoring); speaker's fees from GE and Fresenius (unrelated, contrast associated acute kidney injury, sodium removal during dialysis); consultancy fees (paid to institution) from AstraZeneca (unrelated); and is a member of the Trial Steering Committees for the TOP-CKD trial, STOP-ACEi trial, and H4RT trial (unrelated, TOP-CKD trial and STOP-ACEi are in chronic kidney disease, H4RT is a trial of high flux haemodiafiltration). MWT reports grant funding from Fresenius Medical Care (HaemoDialysis interventions to REduce Multi-Organ Dysfunction and Enhance quality of Life) and Kidney Research UK (validation of an algorithm for real-time prediction of intradialytic hypotension using continuous non-invasive blood pressure monitoring); speaker's fees (paid to institution) from Fresenius (Life 2020 conference: Hemodynamic Stress in Hemodialysis); and is a member of the Data Safety Monitoring Committee for the NightLife Study, a randomised trial of nocturnal haemodialysis (NIHR CPMS 45387). NMS and MWT report a patent US provisional application (62/855,069, measuring pressure waves in dialysis lines to derive continuous arterial blood pressure) and have previously collaborated with Professor Christopher W McIntyre, one of the authors of the MyTEMP trial.
  • Opportunities in digital health and electronic health records for acute kidney injury care.

    Selby, Nicholas
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of digital health is evolving rapidly with applications relevant to the prediction, detection and management of acute kidney injury (AKI). This review will summarize recent publications in these areas. RECENT FINDINGS: Machine learning (ML) approaches have been applied predominantly for AKI prediction, but also to identify patients with AKI at higher risk of adverse outcomes, and to discriminate different subgroups (subphenotypes) of AKI. There have been multiple publications in this area, but a smaller number of ML models have robust external validation or the ability to run in real-time in clinical systems. Recent studies of AKI alerting systems and clinical decision support systems continue to demonstrate variable results, which is likely to result from differences in local context and implementation strategies. In the design of AKI alerting systems, choice of baseline creatinine has a strong effect on performance of AKI detection algorithms. SUMMARY: Further research is required to overcome barriers to the validation and implementation of ML models for AKI care. Simpler electronic systems within the electronic medical record can lead to improved care in some but not all settings, and careful consideration of local context and implementation strategy is recommended.
  • Effects of GLP-1 infusion upon whole-body glucose uptake and skeletal muscle perfusion during fed-state in older men.

    Idris, Iskandar
    INTRODUCTION: Ageing skeletal muscles become both insulin resistant and atrophic. The hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) facilitates postprandial glucose uptake as well as augmenting muscle perfusion - independent of insulin action. We thus hypothesized exogenous GLP-1 infusions would enhance muscle perfusion and positively impact glucose metabolism during fed-state clamps in older people. METHODS: Eight men (71 ± 1y) were studied in a randomized cross-over trial. Basal blood samples were taken prior to postprandial (fed-state) insulin and glucose clamps, accompanied by amino acid infusions, for 3 h. Reflecting this, following insertions of peripheral and femoral vessels cannulae and baseline measurements, peripheral I.V infusions of octreotide, insulin (Actrapid), 20% glucose, and mixed amino acids (AA); Vamin 14-EF) ± a femoral arterial GLP-1 infusion were started. GLP-1, insulin and C-peptide were measured by ELISA. Muscle microvascular blood flow (MBF) was assessed via contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Whole-body glucose handling was assayed by assessing glucose infusion rate (GIR) parameters. RESULTS: Skeletal muscle microvascular blood flow significantly increased in response to GLP-1 vs. feeding alone (5.0 ± 2.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.7 fold-change from basal respectively, p = 0.008), while also increasing whole-body glucose uptake (AUC 16.9 ± 1.7 vs. 11.4 ± 1.8 mg.kg-1.180 min-1, p = 0.02 ± GLP, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of GLP-1 upon whole-body glycaemic control are evident with insulin clamped at fed-state levels. GLP-1 further enhances the effects of insulin on whole-body glucose uptake in older men, underlining its role as a therapeutic target. The effects of GLP-1 in enhancing microvascular flow likely also impacts other glucose-regulatory organs, reflected by greater whole-body glucose uptake.
  • Association between practice coding of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary care and subsequent hospitalisations and death: a cohort analysis using national audit data.

    Fluck, Richard
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between practice percentage coding of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary care with risk of subsequent hospitalisations and death. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using linked electronic healthcare records. SETTING: 637 general practitioner (GP) practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 167 208 patients with CKD stages 3-5 identified by 2 measures of estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, separated by at least 90 days, excluding those with coded initiation of renal replacement therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospitalisations with cardiovascular (CV) events, heart failure (HF), acute kidney injury (AKI) and all-cause mortality RESULTS: Participants were followed for (median) 3.8 years for hospital outcomes and 4.3 years for deaths. Rates of hospitalisations with CV events and HF were lower in practices with higher percentage CKD coding. Trends of a small reduction in AKI but no substantial change in rate of deaths were also observed as CKD coding increased. Compared with patients in the median performing practice (74% coded), patients in practices coding 55% of CKD cases had a higher rate of CV hospitalisations (HR 1.061 (95% CI 1.015 to 1.109)) and HF hospitalisations (HR 1.097 (95% CI 1.013 to 1.187)) and patients in practices coding 88% of CKD cases had a reduced rate of CV hospitalisations (HR 0.957 (95% CI 0.920 to 0.996)) and HF hospitalisations (HR 0.918 (95% CI 0.855 to 0.985)). We estimate that 9.0% of CV hospitalisations and 16.0% of HF hospitalisations could be prevented by improving practice CKD coding from 55% to 88%. Prescription of antihypertensives was the most dominant predictor of a reduction in hospitalisation rates for patients with CKD, followed by albuminuria testing and use of statins. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of CKD coding by GP practices were associated with lower rates of CV and HF events, which may be driven by increased use of antihypertensives and regular albuminuria testing, although residual confounding cannot be ruled out.
  • EFSUMB Clinical Practice Guidelines for Point-of-Care Ultrasound: Part One (Common Heart and Pulmonary Applications) LONG VERSION.

    Morris, C (2022-10)
    AIMS:  To evaluate the evidence and produce a summary and recommendations for the most common heart and lung applications of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS). METHODS:  We reviewed 10 clinical domains/questions related to common heart and lung applications of PoCUS. Following review of the evidence, a summary and recommendation were produced, including assignment of levels of evidence (LoE) and grading of the recommendation, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE). 38 international experts, the expert review group (ERG), were invited to review the evidence presented for each question. A level of agreement of over 75 % was required to progress to the next section. The ERG then reviewed and indicated their level of agreement regarding the summary and recommendation for each question (using a 5-point Likert scale), which was approved if a level of agreement of greater than 75 % was reached. A level of agreement was defined as a summary of "strongly agree" and "agree" on the Likert scale responses. FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:  One question achieved a strong consensus for an assigned LoE of 3 and a weak GRADE recommendation (question 1). The remaining 9 questions achieved broad agreement with one assigned an LoE of 4 and weak GRADE recommendation (question 2), three achieving an LoE of 3 with a weak GRADE recommendation (questions 3-5), three achieved an LoE of 3 with a strong GRADE recommendation (questions 6-8), and the remaining two were assigned an LoE of 2 with a strong GRADE recommendation (questions 9 and 10). CONCLUSION:  These consensus-derived recommendations should aid clinical practice and highlight areas of further research for PoCUS in acute settings.
  • Intermittently Scanned Continuous Glucose Monitoring for Type 1 Diabetes.

    Wilmot, Emma
    BACKGROUND: In persons with type 1 diabetes and high glycated hemoglobin levels, the benefits of intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring with optional alarms for high and low blood glucose levels are uncertain. METHODS: In a parallel-group, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving participants with type 1 diabetes and glycated hemoglobin levels between 7.5% and 11.0%, we investigated the efficacy of intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring as compared with participant monitoring of blood glucose levels with fingerstick testing. The primary outcome was the glycated hemoglobin level at 24 weeks, analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Key secondary outcomes included sensor data, participant-reported outcome measures, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 156 participants were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to undergo intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (the intervention group, 78 participants) or to monitor their own blood glucose levels with fingerstick testing (the usual-care group, 78 participants). At baseline, the mean (±SD) age of the participants was 44±15 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 21±13 years; 44% of the participants were women. The mean baseline glycated hemoglobin level was 8.7±0.9% in the intervention group and 8.5±0.8% in the usual-care group; these levels decreased to 7.9±0.8% and 8.3±0.9%, respectively, at 24 weeks (adjusted mean between-group difference, -0.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.7 to -0.3; P<0.001). The time per day that the glucose level was in the target range was 9.0 percentage points (95% CI, 4.7 to 13.3) higher or 130 minutes (95% CI, 68 to 192) longer in the intervention group than in the usual-care group, and the time spent in a hypoglycemic state (blood glucose level, <70 mg per deciliter [<3.9 mmol per liter]) was 3.0 percentage points (95% CI, 1.4 to 4.5) lower or 43 minutes (95% CI, 20 to 65) shorter in the intervention group. Two participants in the usual-care group had an episode of severe hypoglycemia, and 1 participant in the intervention group had a skin reaction to the sensor. CONCLUSIONS: Among participants with type 1 diabetes and high glycated hemoglobin levels, the use of intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring with optional alarms for high and low blood glucose levels resulted in significantly lower glycated hemoglobin levels than levels monitored by fingerstick testing. (Funded by Diabetes UK and others; FLASH-UK ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03815006.).
  • Glycaemic measures for 8914 adult FreeStyle Libre users during routine care, segmented by age group and observed changes during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Wilmot, Emma
    AIM: To evaluate the impact of the stay-at-home policy on different glucose metrics for time in range (%TIR 3.9-10 mmol/L), time below range (%TBR < 3.9 mmol/L) and time above range (%TAR > 10 mmol/L) for UK adult FreeStyle Libre (FSL) users within four defined age groups and on observed changes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Data were extracted from 8914 LibreView de-identified user accounts for adult users aged 18 years or older with 5 or more days of sensor readings in each month from January to June 2020. Age-group categories were based on self-reported age on LibreView accounts (18-25, 26-49, 50-64 and ≥65 years). RESULTS: In January, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the 65 years or older age group had the highest %TIR (57.9%), while the 18-25 years age group had the lowest (51.2%) (P < .001). Within each age group, TIR increased during the analysed months, by 1.7% (26-49 years) to 3.1% (≥65 years) (P < .001 in all cases). %TBR was significantly reduced only in the 26-49 years age group, whereas %TAR was reduced by 1.5% (26-49 years) to 3.0% (≥65 years) (P < .001 in both cases). The proportion of adults achieving both of the more than 70% TIR and less than 4% TBR targets increased from 11.7% to 15.9% for those aged 65 years or older (P < .001) and from 6.0% to 9.1% for those aged 18-25 years (P < .05). Mean daily glucose-sensor scan rates were at least 12 per day and remained stable across the analysis period. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the baseline glucose metrics for FSL users in the UK across different age groups under usual care. During lockdown in the UK, the proportion of adults achieving TIR consensus targets increased among FSL users.
  • Tolerability, gastric emptying patterns, and symptoms during the Nottingham Test Meal in 330 secondary care non-diabetic dyspeptic patients.

    Tucker, Emily
    BACKGROUND: Scintigraphy is used for overall assessment of gastric emptying. Adherence to an international consensus protocol is recommended to ensure quality; however, this has not been widely adopted because preparation of the "egg-beater" meal is inconvenient in clinical practice. In this report, we audit the tolerability and the results of gastric emptying scintigraphy with the 400 ml Tc-99 m-labeled liquid nutrient Nottingham Test Meal (NTM). METHODS: Results from 330 consecutive adult, non-diabetic patients with dyspeptic symptoms referred for gastric scintigraphy were analyzed. Gastric half-emptying time (T50) and validated measurements of early- and late-phase gastric emptying were acquired. Postprandial sensations of fullness, bloating, heartburn, nausea, and epigastric pain were recorded using 100 mm visual analog scales (VAS) before and 0, 30, and 90 min after NTM ingestion. Results were compared with those previously obtained in healthy subjects. KEY RESULTS: Almost all (98%) of the patients were able to consume the 400 ml NTM. Considering early- and late-phase gastric emptying, frequently observed patterns included normal early- with slow late-phase (25%) and fast early- with slow late-phase emptying (27%). Abnormal score of fullness and/ or dyspeptic symptoms were observed in 88% of dyspeptic patients. Abnormal fullness at T0 (after completed drink ingestion) was associated with slow late phase of gastric emptying, especially in women. CONCLUSIONS: Gastric scintigraphy with the NTM is simple to perform and well tolerated. Whether the identified abnormal gastric emptying patterns could predict different treatment outcome in patients with functional dyspepsia is the subject of ongoing prospective studies.
  • The management and diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury: a case study.

    Torr, Leah; Mortimore, Gerri
    Rhabdomyolysis is characterised by a rapid dissolution of damaged or injured skeletal muscle that can be the result of a multitude of mechanisms. It can range in severity from mild to severe, leading to multi-organ failure and death. Rhabdomyolysis causes muscular cellular breakdown, which can cause fatal electrolyte imbalances and metabolic acidosis, as myoglobin, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and other electrolytes move into the circulation; acute kidney injury can follow as a severe complication. This article reflects on the case of a person who was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury after a fall at home. Understanding the underpinning mechanism of rhabdomyolysis and the associated severity of symptoms may improve early diagnosis and treatment initiation.
  • Plasma Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Concentrations and Clinical Events After Hospitalization: Findings From the ASSESS-AKI and ARID Studies.

    Packington, Rebecca
    RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The role of plasma soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)1 and sTNFR2 in the prognosis of clinical events after hospitalization with or without acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Hospital survivors from the Assessment, Serial Evaluation, and Subsequent Sequelae of Acute Kidney Injury (ASSESS-AKI) and AKI Risk in Derby (ARID) with and without AKI during the index hospitalization who had baseline serum samples for biomarker measurements. PREDICTORS: We measured sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 obtained 3 months post-discharge. OUTCOMES: The associations between biomarkers with longitudinal kidney disease incidence and progression, heart failure and death were evaluated. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Among 1474 participants with plasma biomarker measurements, 19% developed kidney disease progression, 14% had later heart failure, and 21% died over a median follow-up of 4.4 years. For the kidney outcome, the adjusted HRs per doubling in concentration were 2.9 (2.2-3.9) for sTNFR1 and 1.9 (1.5-2.5) for sTNFR2. AKI during the index hospitalization did not modify the association between biomarkers and kidney events. For heart failure, the adjusted HRs per doubling in concentration were 1.9 (1.4-2.5) for sTNFR1 and 1.5 (1.2-2.0) for sTNFR2. For mortality, the adjusted HRs were 3.3 (2.5-4.3) for sTNFR1 and 2.5 (2.0-3.1) for sTNFR2. The findings in ARID were qualitatively similar for the magnitude of association between biomarkers and outcomes. LIMITATIONS: Different biomarker platforms, AKI definitions, limited generalizability to other ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: Plasma sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 measured 3 months after discharge were independently associated with clinical events, regardless of AKI status during the index admission. sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 may assist with the risk stratification of patients during follow-up.
  • Promoting simulation-based training in radiology: a homemade phantom for the practice of ultrasound-guided procedures.

    Jethwa, K
    OBJECTIVE: Ultrasound-guided intervention is an essential skill for many radiologists and critical for accurate diagnosis and treatment in many radiology subspecialties. Simulation using phantoms have demonstrated statistically significant benefits for trainees within the literature. We propose a novel phantom model which the authors feel is ideal for training clinical radiology trainees in the performance of ultrasound-guided procedures. METHODS: The recipe to prepare a homemade phantom is described. Results of a local survey from trainees preparing and using the phantom are also presented. RESULTS: This realistic training simulation model can be adapted to suit a variety of biopsy devices and procedures including soft tissue biopsy and cyst aspiration. The phantom mimics the sonographic appearances of soft tissue and biopsy targets can be concealed within. The phantom was easily prepared by 22 trainees (Likert score 4.5) and it functioned well (Likert score of 4.7). CONCLUSION: In summary, our phantom model is ideal for training clinical radiology trainees in the performance of ultrasound-guided core biopsy. The availability and low cost of the model, combined with the ease of preparation and reproducibility, make this an efficient and effective addition to the training process. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: A low cost easily handmade phantom recipe is described that could be easily implemented in training schemes.
  • Opportunities in digital health and electronic health records for acute kidney injury care.

    Selby, Nicholas
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of digital health is evolving rapidly with applications relevant to the prediction, detection and management of acute kidney injury (AKI). This review will summarize recent publications in these areas. RECENT FINDINGS: Machine learning (ML) approaches have been applied predominantly for AKI prediction, but also to identify patients with AKI at higher risk of adverse outcomes, and to discriminate different subgroups (subphenotypes) of AKI. There have been multiple publications in this area, but a smaller number of ML models have robust external validation or the ability to run in real-time in clinical systems. Recent studies of AKI alerting systems and clinical decision support systems continue to demonstrate variable results, which is likely to result from differences in local context and implementation strategies. In the design of AKI alerting systems, choice of baseline creatinine has a strong effect on performance of AKI detection algorithms. SUMMARY: Further research is required to overcome barriers to the validation and implementation of ML models for AKI care. Simpler electronic systems within the electronic medical record can lead to improved care in some but not all settings, and careful consideration of local context and implementation strategy is recommended.
  • Promoting simulation-based training in radiology: A homemade phantom for the practice of ultrasound-guided procedures.

    Jethwa, K
    OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound-guided intervention is an essential skill for many radiologists and critical for accurate diagnosis and treatment in many radiology sub specialties. Simulation using phantoms have demonstrated statistically significant benefits for trainees within the literature. We propose a novel phantom model which the authors feel is ideal for training clinical radiology trainees in the performance of ultrasound-guided procedures. METHODS: The recipe to prepare a homemade phantom is described. Results of a local survey from trainees preparing and using the phantom are also presented. RESULTS: This realistic training simulation model can be adapted to suit a variety of biopsy devices and procedures including soft tissue biopsy and cyst aspiration. The phantom mimics the sonographic appearances of soft tissue and biopsy targets can be concealed within. The phantom was easily prepared by 22 trainees (Likert score 4.5) and it functioned well (Likert score of 4.7). CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our phantom model is ideal for training clinical radiology trainees in the performance of ultrasound-guided core biopsy. The availability and low cost of the model, combined with the ease of preparation and reproducibility, make this an efficient and effective addition to the training process. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: A low cost easily handmade phantom recipe is described that could be easily implemented in training schemes.
  • Defining improvement in chronic kidney disease: regression and remission.

    Taal, Maarten
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: International definitions exist for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and kidney failure but despite evidence that kidney function may improve, there are no agreed definitions for regression and remission of CKD. In the light of recent novel kidney protective therapies and the promise of regenerative medicine to reverse kidney damage, it is time to critically examine these neglected aspects of CKD epidemiology. RECENT FINDINGS: We propose that CKD regression is viewed as a process of improvement defined as a sustained increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by ≥25% and an improvement in GFR category or increase in GFR of 1≥ml/min/year, whereas remission is considered a category of improvement defined as GFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 and urine albumin to creatinine ratio <30 mg/g. Several recent studies have reported improvement in kidney function in populations with CKD, even in the absence of specific therapy. Regression and remission of CKD are associated with increased likelihood of sustained improvement in kidney function as well as improved survival. SUMMARY: Further research is warranted to validate the proposed definitions and investigate associated mechanisms. We look to a future in which the goal of therapy is not merely to slow CKD progression but to improve kidney function and seek a cure.
  • Room for improvement: diagnosing and managing acute coronary syndromes in persons with reduced eGFR.

    Horne, Kerry; Taal, Maarten; Selby, Nicholas
    Cardiovascular events are the leading cause of death in chronic kidney disease. A recent analysis from the High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome trial focused on results in those with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate. This commentary discusses aspects of acute coronary syndrome diagnosis in this group and the differential approach to acute coronary syndrome management that was observed between those with normal and reduced kidney function.
  • Infections in relapsed myeloma patients treated with isatuximab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone during the COVID-19 pandemic: Initial results of a UK-wide real-world study.

    Firas, AK
    OBJECTIVES: There are no real-world data describing infection morbidity in relapsed/refractory myeloma (RRMM) patients treated with anti-CD38 isatuximab in combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone (IsaPomDex). In this UK-wide retrospective study, we set out to evaluate infections experienced by routine care patients who received this novel therapy across 24 cancer centres during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The primary endpoint was infection morbidity (incidence, grading, hospitalization) as well as infection-related deaths. Secondary outcomes were clinical predictors of increased incidence of any grade (G2-5) and high grade (≥G3) infections. RESULTS: In a total cohort of 107 patients who received a median (IQR) of 4 cycles (2-8), 23.4% of patients experienced ≥1 any grade (G2-5) infections (total of 31 episodes) and 18.7% of patients experienced ≥1 high grade (≥G3) infections (total of 22 episodes). Median time (IQR) from start of therapy to first episode was 29 days (16-75). Six patients experienced COVID-19 infection, of whom 5 were not vaccinated and 1 was fully vaccinated. The cumulative duration of infection-related hospitalizations was 159 days. The multivariate (MVA) Poisson Regression analysis demonstrated that a higher co-morbidity burden with Charlson Co-morbidity Index (CCI) score ≥4 (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3, p = 0.012) and sub-optimal myeloma response less than a partial response.

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