Recent Submissions

  • Autopsy of a failed trial part 2: Outcomes, challenges, and lessons learnt from the DAISIES trial

    Arcelus, Jon (2023)
    OBJECTIVE: The relative merits of inpatient or day-treatment for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) are unknown. The DAISIES trial aimed to establish the non-inferiority of a stepped-care day patient treatment (DPT) approach versus inpatient treatment as usual (IP-TAU) for improving body mass index (BMI) at 12 months in adults with AN. The trial was terminated due to poor recruitment. This paper presents outcomes and investigates the reasons behind the trial's failure. METHOD: Fifteen patients with AN (of 53 approached) participated and were followed-up to 6 or 12 months. Summary statistics were calculated due to low sample size, and qualitative data concerning treatment experiences were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: At baseline, participants in both trial arms rated stepped-care DPT as more acceptable. At 12 months, participants' BMIs had increased in both trial arms. Qualitative analysis highlighted valued and challenging aspects of care across settings. Only 6/12 sites opened for recruitment. Among patients approached, the most common reason for declining participation was their treatment preference (n = 12/38). CONCLUSIONS: No conclusions can be drawn concerning the effectiveness of IP-TAU and stepped-care DPT, but the latter was perceived more positively. Patient-related, service-related and systemic factors (COVID-19) contributed to the trial's failure. Lessons learnt can inform future studies.
  • Assessment and treatment of compulsive exercise in anorexia nervosa - a combined investigation of compulsive exercise activity therapy (LEAP) and compulsive exercise test subscales

    Arcelus, Jon (2023)
    INTRODUCTION: Compulsive exercise is a transdiagnostic feature of eating disorders which adversely affects aspects of recovery, such as length of hospitalisation, risk of a chronic outcome, and risk of relapse. CompuLsive Exercise Activity TheraPy (LEAP) aims to reduce compulsive exercise through a cognitive behavioural approach. This study aims to investigate the effect of LEAP on compulsive exercise behaviour using subscales of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET), a measure of exercise in individuals with eating disorders. Predictive validity of the CET's subscales and its ability to predict eating psychopathology are investigated. METHOD: This study used data from a randomized controlled trial of LEAP (1). Linear mixed modelling was used to investigate the effect of LEAP on compulsive exercise behaviour, and the predictive ability of CET subscales on various outcomes. The CET was compared to other exercise measures to assess its superiority in predicting eating psychopathology. RESULTS: LEAP was superior in reducing the scores of the CET's Avoidance and Rule Driven Behaviour and Exercise Rigidity subscales. All subscales made a contribution to the respective models. The CET was superior to other measures in predicting eating pathology. CONCLUSION: The results lend credibility to LEAP's ability to reduce core parts of compulsive exercise. The CET has been found to target important aspects of compulsive exercise behaviour, and has was superior to other exercise measures in predicting eating psychopathology.
  • An intervention mapping adaptation framework to develop a self-help intervention for athletes with eating disorder symptoms

    Arcelus, Jon (2023)
    OBJECTIVE: This research forum describes the use of the intervention mapping for adaptation (IMA) framework to develop and evaluate a novel intervention for athletes with mild eating disorder (ED) symptoms. METHODS: The six IMA steps were followed. In step 1 (needs assessment), we conducted a systematic review of athlete ED interventions and held interviews/focus groups with athletes and sports professionals to inform intervention format and delivery. In step 2 (intervention search), needs assessment information guided the search for an evidence-based intervention suitable for adaptation to athletes. In steps 3 and 4 (intervention development), the identified intervention was adapted and feedback sought from athletes and sport professionals. In steps 5 and 6 (implementation and evaluation), a feasibility study was conducted with athletes (n = 35; females: n = 27; M(age)  = 27.1). RESULTS: The review highlighted poor evidence for the acceptability and relative efficacy of existing interventions, which were all delivered face-to-face in groups. Interview/focus group data suggested a need for more accessible intervention formats (e.g., self-help). One non-athlete self-help intervention was determined suitable for adaptation to athletes, and adaptations were made. Initial feedback suggested the adapted intervention was relevant within sport settings. The feasibility study revealed that the intervention (MOPED-A: Motivational and Psycho-Educational Self-Help Programme for Athletes with Mild Eating Disorder Symptoms) can be feasibly implemented, is acceptable to athletes and shows potential for reducing ED symptoms. DISCUSSION: IMA is a useful framework for developing participant-centered and evidence-based interventions. The findings and approach taken provide a framework for other researchers and clinicians in developing similar interventions in the ED domain. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE: The novel self-help intervention described in this article was developed using intervention mapping and provides promise as a tool for reducing eating disorder symptoms in athletes. We describe how adopting and systematically following a health intervention development approach, such as intervention mapping, can ensure that eating disorder interventions are participant-centered, contextually relevant, and evidence-based, which in turn could help to maximize their reach and effectiveness.
  • Impact of LEAP and CBT-AN Therapy on Improving Outcomes in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Arcelus, Jon (2023)
    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a mental health disorder that has serious physical, emotional and social consequences. Whilst cognitive behavioural therapy for AN (CBT-AN) has demonstrated efficacy, there remains a global need to improve AN treatment. Compulsive exercise activity therapy (LEAP) is an active therapy consisting of the addition to CBT-AN of eight specific sessions that focus on exercise and motivation for behavioural change. This paper presents a secondary analysis of 74 female participants in a randomised control trial of LEAP plus CBT-AN versus CBT-AN alone. The main aim of this study was to explore putative predictors and to estimate the magnitude of changes due to LEAP for specific outcome measures. Participants (LEAP: n = 36; CBT-AN: n = 38) were assessed at three successive surveys: baseline, end of therapy, and 6 months post-therapy. The overall effect sizes for changes between baseline to end of therapy and baseline to 6-month follow-up assessment showed large effect sizes (Cohen's d > = 0.80) for mental-health-related quality of life (MHRQoL), weight concern, dietary restraint, eating concern, AN stage change, and psychological distress (all p < 0.05). The results also indicated that several pre-treatment characteristics, including body mass index (BMI), level of eating disorder (ED) symptoms, and MHRQoL are important for identifying whether a treatment is likely to be effective. Future treatment programs should aim to optimise early improvements in BMI, ED symptoms, and MHRQoL.
  • Autopsy of a failed trial part 1: A qualitative investigation of clinician's views on and experiences of the implementation of the DAISIES trial in UK-based intensive eating disorder services

    Arcelus, Jon (2023)
    OBJECTIVE: The DAISIES trial, comparing inpatient and stepped-care day patient treatment for adults with severe anorexia nervosa was prematurely terminated in March 2022 due to poor recruitment. This qualitative study seeks to understand the difficulties faced during the trial by investigating stakeholders' views on and experiences of its implementation. METHOD: Semi-structured interview and focus group transcripts, and trial management and oversight group meeting minutes from May 2020-June 2022 were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants were 47 clinicians and co-investigators involved with the DAISIES trial. The Non-Adoption, Abandonment, Scale-up, Spread, and Sustainability (NASSS) framework was applied to the interpretive themes to classify barriers and facilitators to implementation. RESULTS: Five themes were identified: incompatible participation interests; changing standard practice; concerns around clinical management; systemic capacity and capability issues; and Covid-19 disrupting implementation. Applying the NASSS framework indicated the greatest implementation challenges to arise with the adopters (e.g. patients, clinicians), the organisational systems (e.g. service capacity), and the wider socio-political context (e.g. Covid-19 closing services). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasise the top-down impact of systemic-level research implementation challenges. The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic accentuated pre-existing organisational barriers to trial implementation within intensive eating disorder services, further limiting the capacity for research.
  • 'Paris Thin': The mental health of models

    Hankir, Ahmed (2022)
    Surprising it may seem, the mental health issues remains largely overlooked in the highly competitive and unforgiving industry of modelling and fashion. A substantial number of models experience mental health issues due to the nature of their occupation, however, most avoid speaking out due to fear of stigma and losing out on future work. Moreover, problematic eating behaviours in attempts to improve body image can have profoundly adverse effects on mental and physical health, even leading to death in extreme cases, yet these behaviours are being reinforced and rewarded with success and career progression. Indeed, the term 'Paris Thin' was used in relation to the deaths of models from starvation who were in pursuit of 'the perfect body' whilst working in France, the epicentre of the fashion world. Although improvements have been made over the past decade, conversations surrounding common mental disorders such as depression and anxiety remain minimal at best and discussions about other serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder are virtually absent. Campaigns that amplify the voices of models living with a mental health condition must therefore be supported to reduce mental health related stigma in the industry and encourage those who are suffering and struggling to seek professional help. Research in this area is urgently needed to yield new insights that will help to improve the mental health of models.<
  • Asking parents/carers of young children with Down syndrome about specific eating behaviours and feeding practices could lead to more effective tailored support for feeding problems

    Wood, Sian (2022)
    Commentary on: Rogers SL, Smith B, Mengoni SE. Relationships between feeding problems, eating behaviours and parental feeding practices in children with Down syndrome: A cross‐sectional study. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2022;35(2):596–606. Commentary: Feeding problems have a significant physical, functional and emotional impact on children with DS and their parents/carers,1 2 and are therefore an important area of study. This paper adds to existing evidence highlighting the greater incidence of feeding difficulties children with DS experience1 6 by offering comparisons to TD children. The study identifies greater food avoidance traits as a risk factor for feeding problems and offers suggestive evidence that for children with DS a shorter duration of receiving breast milk may be indicative of later feeding problems, highlighting the need for further research into this area. The findings act as a reminder to healthcare professionals to explore early eating behaviours and parental feeding practices in detail to identify specific areas for support. There is however a lack of depth to the study implications discussion. Consideration of factors such as feeding skills, the impact of dysphagia, the role of professionals with expertise in feeding/dysphagia management and the impact of children with DS’s communication differences on parental feeding practices could have offered greater clinical utility. The authors acknowledge the limitations of the sample size and large age range reducing generalisability and the cross-sectional nature of their study limiting the ability to address causality. There are few strong clinical implications nonetheless; this paper offers further insights to professionals working with parents/carers striving to meet the eating and drinking needs of children with DS.
  • Transitions from intensive eating disorder treatment settings: qualitative investigation of the experiences and needs of adults with anorexia nervosa and their carers

    Arcelus, Jon (2022)
    BACKGROUND: Relapse rates for individuals with anorexia nervosa after intensive hospital treatment (in-patient or full-time day care) are high. Better knowledge about the difficulties and opportunities that arise during this transition is needed to identify factors that support or hinder continued recovery upon discharge. AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of adult patients and their chosen carers on the process of transitioning from intensive eating disorder treatment settings to the community. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 11) discharged from day or in-patient care from specialised eating disorder units across the UK, and their chosen carers (n = 20). Data were analysed with inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four interrelated themes were identified for both groups. For patients, themes were continuity of care, ambivalence about continued recovery, the value of social support and a call for enhanced transition support. For carers, themes were the impact of the eating disorder on themselves and the family, perceptions of recovery and support post-discharge, the impact of previous treatment and care experiences, and desire to create a supportive transition process. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides an insight into the unique challenges that individuals with anorexia nervosa face upon leaving intensive treatment. A lack of post-discharge planning, support system and identity formation outside of anorexia nervosa were perceived as barriers to continued recovery. Patients and carers advocated for transition support that incorporates a phased, inclusive approach with accessible professional and social support in the community.
  • The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a ‘stepping into day treatment’ approach versus inpatient treatment as usual for anorexia nervosa in adult specialist eating disorder services (DAISIES trial): a study protocol of a randomised controlled multi-centre open-label parallel group non-inferiority trial

    Arcelus, Jon (2022)
    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious and disabling mental disorder with a high disease burden. In a proportion of cases, intensive hospital-based treatments, i.e. inpatient or day patient treatment, are required, with day patient treatment often being used as a ‘step-down’ treatment after a period of inpatient treatment. Demand for such treatment approaches has seen a sharp rise. Despite this, the relative merits of these approaches for patients, their families, and the NHS and wider society are relatively unknown. This paper describes the rationale for, and protocol of, a two-arm multi-centre open-label parallel group non-inferiority randomised controlled trial, evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these two intensive treatments for adults with severe AN: inpatient treatment as usual and a stepped care day patient approach (the combination of day patient treatment with the option of initial inpatient treatment for medical stabilisation). The main aim of this trial is to establish whether, in adults with severe AN, a stepped care day patient approach is non-inferior to inpatient treatment as usual in relation to improving body mass index (BMI) at 12 months post-randomisation.
  • Evaluating a motivational and psycho-educational self-help intervention for athletes with mild eating disorder symptoms: A mixed methods feasibility study

    Arcelus, Jon (2022)
    OBJECTIVEThe primary aim was to assess the feasibility of undertaking a study evaluating the novel Motivational and Psycho-Educational Self-Help Programme for Athletes with Mild Eating Disorder Symptoms (MOPED-A). A mixed-methods approach was adopted to explore the feasibility of recruiting and retaining participants, and to evaluate the acceptability of measures, procedures and the intervention. A secondary aim was to explore the potential efficacy of MOPED-A in reducing athletes' eating disorder symptoms.METHODThirty-five athletes were recruited. Participation involved completing MOPED-A over a 6-week period and completing self-report measures at baseline (T1), post-intervention (T2) and 4-week follow-up (T3). A subsample (n = 15) completed an interview at T2.RESULTSRetention was good throughout the study (n = 28; 80%). Quantitative and qualitative feedback suggested the format, delivery, content and dosage of MOPED-A were acceptable. Athletes valued that the intervention was tailored to them, and this facilitated both participation and completion. Over a third of participants reported disclosing their eating difficulties and deciding to seek further support. Large reductions in eating disorder symptoms were detected at T2 and sustained at T3.CONCLUSIONSThe MOPED-A intervention can be feasibly implemented, is acceptable to participants, and demonstrates potential for reducing symptoms in athletes. A larger, controlled trial is warranted.
  • Clinicians' perspectives on supporting individuals with severe anorexia nervosa in specialist eating disorder intensive treatment settings

    Arcelus, Jon (2022)
    BACKGROUND: Admissions to intensive treatment (i.e., inpatient [IP] and/or day patient [DP]) for individuals with severe anorexia nervosa (AN) are common. Growing literature indicates potential risks and benefits of each intensive treatment approach; however, existing research has focused on patient and carer perspectives of these treatments. Also, there is scant empirical evidence available for guiding the parameters of intensive treatments for AN. We therefore explored clinicians' perspectives and experience of supporting adults with severe AN in intensive settings. METHODS: We conducted twenty one semi-structured interviews with clinicians who deliver intensive treatments (i.e., IP and/or DP) for individuals with severe AN across four specialist Eating Disorder Services in the United Kingdom between May 2020 and June 2021. We asked clinicians about their views and experiences of supporting individuals with severe AN in intensive treatment settings and the challenges and opportunities associated with IP and DP treatment. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis supported by NVivo software. RESULTS: Five broad and interrelated themes were identified: (1) Intensive Support; (2) The Severity of Patients' Illnesses; (3) Hope and Recovery; (4) Which Treatment When; (5) Limited Resources; and (6) Carer Burden. We identified various similarities between the two intensive treatment approaches, including the value of intensive and multidisciplinary support and carer involvement, and the challenge of managing complex and unique needs in resource-limited intensive settings. We also found differences in the relationship of treatment to patients' home environments, the necessity of patient motivation, and the management of risk. CONCLUSIONS: Both intensive treatment settings are valued by clinicians; however, there are unique challenges and opportunities for supporting individuals with severe AN within each. Our findings suggest DP treatment may be used as an alternative to IP treatment for individuals with severe AN. However, clear questions remain over which intensive treatment setting is best suited to which patient when and should be the focus of future research. Some people with anorexia nervosa will need intensive treatment (e.g., inpatient and day patient treatment) during the course of their illness. We interviewed twenty-one clinicians working in Specialist Eating Disorder Services to explore their views on supporting people with severe anorexia nervosa in inpatient and day patient services and about the perceived advantages and disadvantages of these. We analysed the transcripts of these interviews using thematic analysis. We identified similarities between the two intensive treatment approaches. These included the value of intensive and multidisciplinary support, the importance of carer involvement, and the challenge of managing patient’s complex and unique needs in services with limited resources. We also found differences between inpatient and day patient treatment. These included how treatment relates to patients’ home environments, the importance of patient motivation, and managing risk. Day patient treatment may be an alternative to inpatient treatment for people with severe anorexia nervosa. Future research should investigate which intensive treatment setting is best suited to which patient and when.
  • Olanzapine in the treatment of children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa-A systematic review

    Chand, Parveen; Kulkarni, Meghana; Sayal, Kapil; Majumder, Pallab (2020)
    Objective: Olanzapine is a commonly used antipsychotic drug in the treatment of children and adolescents under the age of 18 years with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) to promote weight restoration. This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness of Olanzapine in influencing weight gain; its effect on eating disorder symptoms, comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms and its safety for use in children and adolescents with AN. Method: A Systematic search of the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Cochrane was conducted for the period between 1996 and September 2019 for all study designs except reviews, published in English, focussing on olanzapine use for the treatment of Anorexia Nervosa in children and adolescents. Inclusion Criteria Population: Children and Adolescents under 18 years of age with a diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa or Eating Disorder not otherwise specified(EDNOS) / Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder(OSFED) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM IV, IV TR or V )or an ICD 10 diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa or Atypical anorexia nervosa. AN could be a clinical or research diagnosis. Intervention: Olanzapine used as a treatment of Anorexia Nervosa either alone or in combination with other interventions (except antipsychotics) in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Outcomes: Weight gain and BMI, Eating disorder (ED) symptoms including ED cognitions and Behaviours, anxiety, depression and adverse effects. Study design: All studies (including case reports and case series) in English language published between the years 1996 and 2019, except reviews. Exclusion Criteria: 1.Concurrent use of any other antipsychotic medication. 2.Anorexia Nervosa Comorbid with severe neurological disorder or medical conditions that would be considered to significantly impact treatment or recovery from the eating disorder. 3.Co-morbid mental disorders like Schizophrenia, Bipolar Affective Disorder, Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified. Results: From the pool of 246 potentially eligible references, 28 studies were included (2 randomised controlled trials, 10 before and after studies, 3 case series and 13 case reports). Overall, these studies suggest that, albeit small, there is evidence that olanzapine use promotes weight restoration and improves eating disorder symptoms, especially in patients with low baseline body mass index (BMI). Initiation of olanzapine at low doses and slow titration minimises likelihood of adverse effects. Longer duration of treatment (10 weeks and more) appears to have potentially sustainable benefits on improving eating disorder symptoms. Clinical Implications: For those on the higher range (BMI more than 17.5) a smaller dose and slow titration needs to be considered to avoid rapid and excess weight gain. Small doses between 2.5 to 10mg were found to be effective. Low doses at initiation and slow titration avoids emergence of adverse effects. Though duration of treatment as early as 5 weeks has shown benefit with weight restoration, durations longer than 10 weeks show sustainable improvements with weight and other associated eating disorder symptoms. Research/Methodological implications: A major difficulty with recruiting patients with Anorexia nervosa for randomized controlled research trials and high dropout rates has been mentioned in published articles (Norris et al 2007) as the objective of weight restoration can be contrary to the belief held by the patients with AN. As studies with longer duration of follow up show promising benefits with improvement in eating disorder symptoms, it is important for future research to design trials with longer follow up durations to truly understand the effectiveness of Olanzapine in improving the eating disorder symptoms including ED cognitions and behaviours measured by standardized rating scales. Future trials must consider the challenges associated and hence develop innovative study designs with larger sample size, consider longer duration of follow up, use weight measures and rating scales which are comparable and evaluate the impact on comorbidities like depression and anxiety of olanzapine treatment. Conclusion: There is emerging evidence of the potentially beneficial role of Olanzapine treatment in children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Due to the difficulties in recruitment of cases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this population innovative study designs are needed to expand the evidence base for the use of olanzapine treatment in AN. Longer term studies are important to understand the role of olanzapine in improving eating disorder symptoms and other comorbidities including its effect on weight restoration.
  • Service user and eating disorder therapist views on anorexia nervosa recovery criteria

    McDonald, Sarah (2021)
    OBJECTIVES: Recovery from anorexia nervosa (AN) is difficult to define, and efforts to establish recovery criteria have led to several versions being proposed. Using the perspectives of people with histories of AN and therapists working in the field, we sought to explore the face validity of Khalsa et al (2017) as one of the most recent examples of proposed systematic recovery criteria. DESIGN: We interviewed 11 health service users (SUs) with histories of AN who had previously received treatment alongside 8 eating disorder therapists (EDTs), exploring their views on the proposed AN recovery criteria. METHODS: Data from verbal and written interviews were analysed thematically. Separate thematic analyses of SU and EDT interviews highlighted where concerns converged and diverged across participants. RESULTS: Both groups saw some merits of having universally recognized recovery criteria, and the multidimensional approach was welcomed, but EDTs were uncomfortable with considering their use in therapy and SUs felt key components were missing around emotional coping and life quality. SUs disliked the prominence of body mass index (BMI) in the criteria, and all struggled with the proposed duration for recovery. Conceptually, the notion of recovery as an endpoint rather than a journey was contested. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate disparities between academically derived recovery criteria and lived experiences and indicate perceived challenges in using such criteria in therapeutic settings. Including SUs and EDTs in the development of criteria may improve the likelihood of consolidating AN recovery criteria, but conceptual challenges remain. PRACTITIONER POINTS: AN recovery is complex, and the use of research-based AN recovery criteria in therapeutic settings could have a detrimental effect on SUs' outcomes. EDTs should be aware of efforts to define AN recovery criteria. EDTs should engage with debates on defining AN recovery and seek to promote participation in such debates to SUs.
  • The role of negative urgency in risky alcohol drinking and binge-eating in United Kingdom male and female students

    Jones, Katy A. (2020)
    Identifying students at risk of developing binge-eating and alcohol use disorders is a priority in the United Kingdom (UK). Although relationships between negative urgency (impulsive behavior during times of negative emotion), risky drinking, and binge-eating have been established in students from other countries, these links have yet to be replicated in male and female UK students. UK students aged 18-30 (n = 155) completed the: (1) the Urgency, Pre-meditation, Perseverance, Sensation Seeking (UPPS-P) negative urgency subscale; (2) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); and (3) Binge-Eating Scale (BES). For categorical analysis, participants were assigned to one of four groups as a function of AUDIT and BES clinical cut-off scores: (1) no risk (28%); (2) risky drinkers (47%); (3) binge-eaters (6%); and (4) risky drinkers + binge-eaters (19%). For dimensional analysis, across students with non-zero AUDIT and BES scores (n = 141), BES, AUDIT, gender, and their interactions were entered as predictors in the same block of a regression. UPPS-P negative urgency was the dependent variable. Categorical results indicated that binge-eaters with and without risky drinking endorsed significantly higher negative urgency than students with no risk. Dimensional results showed that although higher BES and AUDIT scores were positively linked to higher negative urgency, but only the BES was significantly associated. Furthermore, BES shared substantially more variance with negative urgency than the AUDIT, and the BES-negative urgency relationship was stronger in male students than female students. High risk students may benefit the most from interventions that help regulate negative emotion.
  • A randomized controlled trial of the compuLsive Exercise Activity TheraPy (LEAP): A new approach to compulsive exercise in anorexia nervosa

    Arcelus, Jon (2018)
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of the compuLsive Exercise Activity theraPy (LEAP) programme integrated with manualized cognitive behavioral therapy for anorexia nervosa (CBT-AN) compared to CBT-AN alone. METHOD: Seventy-eight adults were randomized to CBT-AN, delivered with or without eight embedded sessions of LEAP, for a total of 34 individual outpatient sessions. Participants were assessed at baseline, the end of the first phase of CBT-AN (which included LEAP), mid-therapy, end of therapy, and at 3 and 6 months follow-up. Linear mixed effects modelling was used for comparing trajectories over time by group in primary outcomes of pathological exercise cognitions and secondary outcomes of exercise frequency, BMI, eating disorder (ED) symptoms, AN stage of change, anxiety/depression, and health related quality of life. RESULTS: There were significant improvements over time in all outcomes. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in primary outcome measures. Fidelity and end-of-treatment participant satisfaction were satisfactory across both conditions. DISCUSSION: CBT-AN and LEAP added to CBT-AN resulted in improved attitudes and beliefs toward exercise and general improvements in BMI and ED psychopathology in people with AN.
  • An exploratory investigation of the experiences of partners living with people who have bulimia nervosa

    Huke, Katherine (2006)
    Objective: This study aimed to explore partners' experiences of living as a couple with someone with bulimia nervosa. Method: Transcripts of eight exploratory interviews with partners were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results: Five superordinate themes emerged: (1) Living with the secrecy and deception; (2) Struggling to understand and find reasons; (3) Discovering your powerlessness; (4) ‘It's like growing to live with it’; (5) Experiencing strengths and strains in the relationship. Discussion: Living with someone with bulimia presents many challenges for partners. They struggle to understand what is happening, can find the secrecy difficult to live with, and are often left feeling powerless. However, partners also look to find ways of accepting and living with the bulimia. It is suggested that partners could be offered opportunities to access support, and that their perspectives could be a useful resource for therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
  • Relationships between compulsive exercise, quality of life, psychological distress and motivation to change in adults with anorexia nervosa

    Arcelus, Jon (2018)
    Background: For people with anorexia nervosa (AN), compulsive exercise is characterized by extreme concerns about the perceived negative consequences of stopping/reducing exercise, dysregulation of affect, and inflexible exercise routines. It is associated with increased eating disorder psychopathology and poor clinical outcome. However, its relationships with two important clinical issues, quality of life (QoL) and motivation to change, are currently unknown. This study aimed to assess the cross-sectional relationships between compulsive exercise, QoL, psychological distress (anxiety and depressive symptoms, and obsessive-compulsive traits) and motivation to change in patients with AN. Method: A total of 78 adults with AN participated in this study, which was nested within a randomized controlled trial of psychological treatments for AN. At baseline (pre-treatment), participants completed questionnaires assessing compulsive exercise, eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, QoL, psychological distress and motivation to change. Results: Baseline correlational analyses demonstrated a moderate positive relationship between compulsive exercise and ED psychopathology, and a weak positive relationship between compulsive exercise and psychological distress. There was a moderate negative relationship between compulsive exercise and eating disorder QoL. Conclusions: These results indicate compulsive exercise is moderately associated with poorer QoL and weakly associated with higher distress. Targeting compulsive exercise in the treatment of anorexia nervosa may help reduce the burden of illness and improve patients' engagement in treatment. © 2018 The Author(s).
  • Risk factors for eating disorder psychopathology within the treatment seeking transgender population: The role of cross-sex hormone treatment

    Jones, Bethany A.; Bouman, Walter P.; Arcelus, Jon (2018)
    Many transgender people experience high levels of body dissatisfaction, which is one of the numerous factors known to increase vulnerability to eating disorder symptoms in the cisgender (non-trans) population. Cross-sex hormones can alleviate body dissatisfaction so might also alleviate eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to explore risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in transgender people and the role of cross-sex hormones. Individuals assessed at a national transgender health service were invited to participate (N = 563). Transgender people not on cross-sex hormones reported higher levels of eating disorder psychopathology than people who were. High body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, anxiety symptoms, and low self-esteem were risk factors for eating psychopathology, but, after controlling for these, significant differences in eating psychopathology between people who were and were not on cross-sex hormones disappeared. Cross-sex hormones may alleviate eating disorder psychopathology. Given the high prevalence of transgender identities, clinicians at eating disorder services should assess for gender identity issues. Copyright (c) 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
  • Eating disorders in athletes: Detection, diagnosis, and treatment

    Arcelus, Jon (2017)
    Sportsmen/women and dancers possess a distinct combination of physical and psychological attributes that can contribute toward their success within their sporting and dance context. This includes qualities such as physical and psychological resilience, an unyielding commitment to exercise, the continuous pursuit of excellence, and the ability to withstand intense physical exertion. However, because close attention to diet and weight control is very important in some sports and dance modalities, athletes are also at a significantly increased risk of developing an eating disorder. This chapter presents an overview of the current evidence on the presentation, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment strategies for eating disorders among athletes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: chapter)

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