• Video gaming and gaming addiction in transgender people: An exploratory study

      Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter P.; Jones, Bethany A.; Richards, Christina (2017)
      Background: There is anecdotal clinical evidence that transgender people use the online world - such as forums and online video gaming - for the purpose of experiencing their gender identity in a safe, non-threatening, non-alienating, non-stigmatizing, and non-critical environment. Aims: To describe gaming behavior, degree of problematic gaming behavior and associated factors with problematic gaming in a comparatively large group of transgender people accessing transgender health services. Methods: Every individual referred to a national transgender health service in the United Kingdom during a 12-month period was invited to complete a series of questionnaires to measure gaming behavior, interpersonal functioning, severity of autistic features, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results: A total of 245 people agreed to participate in the study with 154 (62.9%) describing themselves as current gamers. Gaming behavior in the transgender population attending transgender health services was prevalent, but less than 1% of them presented with clinical scores for Internet Gaming Disorder, with no differences according to gender. Problematic gaming behavior was associated with general interpersonal problems, depression, and young age. Discussion and conclusions: Transgender people who engage in problematic gaming behavior are younger, and present with high interpersonal problems, and depression, which can affect a successful transition. In view of the high levels of gaming activity in this population games that are designed to address these psychological problems may be well received by transgender people. © 2017 The Author(s).
    • Video gaming and gender dysphoria

      Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter P. (2016)
      Video gaming has become an established area of research over the last two decades. Relatively little research has been carried out in the area of in-game gender swapping. The aim of this study is to review the available literature looking at gender dysphoria and gender swapping in video games. And to use clinical cases to investigate the role of video games among the trans population.
    • Video gaming and gender dysphoria: Some case study evidence

      Bouman, Walter P.; Arcelus, Jon (2016)
      During the last two decades, videogames have been occupying an established field of psychological research. In recent years there has been an increase in online gender research, showing that for many groups or individuals this may have psychological benefits (for example, as a way of exploring the functions and gender boundaries in one safe environment). To date, no research has examined the online gender change in individuals with gender dysfunction - people with gender identity problems. Using four case studies, this exploratory study examined the role of gambling in the lives of individuals seeking treatment for gender dysphoria. The main goals were to use exemplary case studies to show that playing games online can be - in some circumstances - a functional way to deal with degenerate identity problems, and that gender change in games can help these individuals to improve gender dysphoria We discuss the limitations of the data collected and suggest recommendations for future research.
    • What services are available for the treatment of transsexuals in Great Britain?

      Murjan, Sarah; Ferguson, Brian G. (2002)
      Aims and method: We conducted a questionnaire survey of all 120 health authorities and boards responsible for the commissioning of services for the assessment and treatment of transsexual people in England, Scotland and Wales, in order to identify the nature of the input offered and assess conformity to current international standards of care. Results: Eighty-two per cent of the commissioning authorities responded and confirmed that most health authorities/boards provide a full service for the treatment of transsexuals, although this would be delivered at a local level in only 20% of cases. However, 11 commissioning authorities gave confused and inaccurate responses and three other health authorities appear to hold views on the commissioning of these specialist services that are not in keeping with the current legal situation and a recent High Court ruling, which establishes the right of transsexual people to NHS assessment and treatment. Clinical implications: There are discrepancies in prioritisation and provision of clinical services for this group that are not standard across Great Britain.
    • Who watches the watchmen? A critical perspective on the theorization of trans people and clinicians

      Richards, Christina (2014)
      This paper, made from an explicitly academic-practitioner stance, aims to highlight some of the problematic ways in which academic writing on trans people, and on the clinicians working in trans healthcare, has been presented in recent years. We argue that much work theorizes trans people and clinicians whilst failing to recognise the full and complex humanity of the people concerned. Also, such work frequently universalises a small number of accounts as if they were representative of 'the trans person' or 'the medical/psy profession' as a whole. We call upon future writers and researchers to pay more attention to the multiplicity and diversity of accounts, and to consider the potential damage of perpetuating certain accounts as fixed or universal.
    • World Professional Association for Transgender Health consensus statement on considerations of the role of distress (Criterion D) in the DSM diagnosis of gender identity disorder

      Bouman, Walter P.; Richards, Christina (2010)
      This article explains the report from the work group of WPATH charged to consider whether a diagnosis for gender identity disorder should be included in the revised DSM; whether distress is inherent, a result of social stigma, or both; and what the implications of this are for the diagnosis in the revised DSM. Suggestions are made to remove gender identity disorder from the next revision of DSM and to find a place in the nonmental disorder section of the ICD, using the more broadly defined and less stigmatizing term gender dysphoria. Alternative suggestions are also put forward to incorporate distress within Criterion A of a diagnosis of Gender Dysphoria (formerly Gender Identity Disorder) in the revised DSM, which will make the condition correspond more closely to its description in the ICD.
    • Yes and yes again: Are standards of care which require two referrals for genital reconstructive surgery ethical?

      Bouman, Walter P.; Richards, Christina; Arcelus, Jon (2014)
      The commonly used Standards of Care for people with gender dysphoria, including those of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health and The Royal College of Psychiatrists in the United Kingdom, as well as those standards used in many other countries, usually require that two signatures of approval from qualified mental health professionals be provided before genital reconstructive surgery (GRS)—sometimes called sexual reassignment surgery or gender confirmation surgery—is undertaken. This is different from surgeries which are similarly irreversible and remove reproductive capacity carried out on cisgender people. This paper explores the trans-specific issues from a standpoint of medical ethics and argues that, provided sufficient safeguards are in place, including assessment within a multidisciplinary team, a nuanced approach utilising a single signature may instead be appropriate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: journal abstract)