This community contains articles published by colleagues at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust and the Institute of Mental Health.

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  • Improving the lives of people with dementia through technology: interdisciplinary network for dementia utilising current technology

    Orrell, Martin; McDermott, Orii (2022)
    This book explores the practical application of recent improvements in technology for people living with dementia and highlights the positive outcomes on care, quality of life, and services on patients through exploration of 15 research projects to redefine the future of dementia care. Using research compiled in collaboration with leading universities and organisations across Europe, this book demonstrates how INDUCT’s (Interdisciplinary Network for Dementia Utilising Current Technology's) findings resulted in implications for practical cognitive and social factors to improve the usability of technology, evaluating the effectiveness of specific contemporary technology, and tracing facilitators and barriers for implementation of technology in dementia care. Featuring a unique training programme along with a wide range of patient-public involvement, this state-of-the-art volume will be essential reading for researchers, academics and scholars in the fields of dementia and mental health research, gerontology, psychology and nursing.
  • Evaluating the performance of the PRISMA-7 frailty criteria for predicting disability and death after acute ischemic stroke

    Stephan, Blossom C. M. (2022)
    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of the PRISMA-7 frailty criteria regarding the composite outcome of disability or death in patients with an acute ischemic stroke, and to compare it with the Frailty Index and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study involved all patients aged ≥ 40 years admitted with an acute ischemic stroke between March 2019 and January 2020. We performed survival analyses, calculated risk ratios, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for the combined outcome of disability or death according to the presence of frailty as determined by the PRISMA-7 and the Frailty Index, and stroke severity based on the NIHSS. RESULTS: In 174 patients with acute ischemic stroke, being frail in the week before the stroke according to the PRISMA-7 was associated with a Risk Ratio of 4·50 (95%CI 1·77-11·43, P <0·001) and a Positive Predictive Value of 89% (95%CI 77-99%) for being disabled or dead 90 days after the stroke, and a Hazard Ratio of 3·33 (95%CI 1·48-7·51, P = 0·004) for the survival outcome. The predictive performance of the PRISMA-7 was not significantly different from the Frailty Index or the NIHSS. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that the PRISMA-7 frailty criteria may be a useful prognostication tool in acute ischemic stroke.
  • Healthcare workers' views on mandatory SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in the UK: A cross-sectional, mixed-methods analysis from the UK-REACH study

    Simpson, Sandra (2022)
    Background: Several countries now have mandatory SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for healthcare workers (HCWs) or the general population. HCWs' views on this are largely unknown. Using data from the nationwide UK-REACH study we aimed to understand UK HCW's views on improving SARS-CoV-2 vaccination coverage, including mandatory vaccination. Method(s): Between 21st April and 26th June 2021, we administered an online questionnaire via email to 17 891 UK HCWs recruited as part of a longitudinal cohort from across the UK who had previously responded to a baseline questionnaire (primarily recruited through email) as part of the United Kingdom Research study into Ethnicity And COVID-19 outcomes in Healthcare workers (UK-REACH) nationwide prospective cohort study. We categorised responses to a free-text question "What should society do if people do not get vaccinated against COVID-19?" using qualitative content analysis. We collapsed categories into a binary variable: favours mandatory vaccination or not, using logistic regression to calculate its demographic predictors, and its occupational, health, and attitudinal predictors adjusted for demographics. Finding(s): Of 5633 questionnaire respondents, 3235 answered the free text question. Median age of free text responders was 47 years (IQR 36-56) and 2705 (74.3%) were female. 18% (n = 578) favoured mandatory vaccination (201 [6%] participants for HCWs and others working with vulnerable populations; 377 [12%] for the general population), but the most frequent suggestion was education (32%, n = 1047). Older HCWs (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.44-2.34 [>=55 years vs 16 years to <40 years]), HCWs vaccinated against influenza (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.11-2.01 [2 vaccines vs none]), and with more positive vaccination attitudes generally (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.06-1.15) were more likely to favour mandatory vaccination, whereas female HCWs (OR= 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.96, vs male HCWs) and Black HCWs (OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.85, vs white HCWs) were less likely to. Interpretation(s): Only one in six of the HCWs in this large, diverse, UK-wide sample favoured mandatory vaccination. Building trust, educating, and supporting HCWs who are hesitant about vaccination may be more acceptable, effective, and equitable. Funding(s): MRC-UK Research and Innovation grant (MR/V027549/1) and the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) via the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Core funding was also provided by NIHR Biomedical Research Centres.
  • Developing an mHealth intervention to reduce COVID-19-associated psychological distress among health care workers in Nigeria: Protocol for a design and feasibility study

    Seun-Fadipe, Champion T. (2022)
    BACKGROUND: Globally, COVID-19-related psychological distress is seriously eroding health care workers' mental health and well-being, especially in low-income countries like Nigeria. The use of mobile health (mHealth) interventions is now increasingly recognized as an innovative approach that may improve mental health and well-being. This project aims to develop an mHealth psychological intervention (mPsyI) to reduce COVID-19-related psychological distress among health care workers in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to present a study protocol to determine the level of COVID-19-related psychological distress among health care workers in Nigeria; explore health care workers' experience of COVID-19-related psychological distress; develop and pilot test mPsyI to reduce this distress; and assess the feasibility of this intervention (such as usability, engagement, and satisfaction). METHODS: A mixed (quantitative and qualitative) methods approach is used in which health care workers will be recruited from 2 tertiary health care facilities in southwest Nigeria. The study is divided into 4 phases based on the study objectives. Phase 1 involves a quantitative survey to assess the type and levels of psychosocial distress. Phase 2 collects qualitative data on psychosocial distress among health care workers. Phase 3 involves development of the mHealth-based psychological intervention, and phase 4 is a mixed methods study to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. RESULTS: This study was funded in November 2020 by the Global Effort on COVID-19 Health Research, and collection of preliminary baseline data started in July 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report the development of an mHealth-based intervention to reduce COVID-19-related psychological distress among health care workers in Nigeria. Using a mixed methods design in this study can potentially facilitate the adaptation of an evidence-based treatment method that is culturally sensitive and cost-effective for the management of COVID-19-related psychological distress among health care workers in Nigeria.
  • Agoraphobic avoidance in patients with psychosis: Severity and response to automated VR therapy in a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled clinical trial

    O'Regan, Eileen (2022)
    Background: The social withdrawal of many patients with psychosis can be conceptualised as agoraphobic avoidance due to a range of long-standing fears. We hypothesised that greater severity of agoraphobic avoidance is associated with higher levels of psychiatric symptoms and lower levels of quality of life. We also hypothesised that patients with severe agoraphobic avoidance would experience a range of benefits from an automated virtual reality (VR) therapy that allows them to practise everyday anxiety-provoking situations in simulated environments. Method(s): 345 patients with psychosis in a randomised controlled trial were categorised into average, moderate, high, and severe avoidance groups using the Oxford Agoraphobic Avoidance Scale. Associations of agoraphobia severity with symptom and functioning variables, and response over six months to brief automated VR therapy (gameChange), were tested. Result(s): Greater severity of agoraphobic avoidance was associated with higher levels of persecutory ideation, auditory hallucinations, depression, hopelessness, and threat cognitions, and lower levels of meaningful activity, quality of life, and perceptions of recovery. Patients with severe agoraphobia showed the greatest benefits with gameChange VR therapy, with significant improvements at end of treatment in agoraphobic avoidance, agoraphobic distress, ideas of reference, persecutory ideation, paranoia worries, recovering quality of life, and perceived recovery, but no significant improvements in depression, suicidal ideation, or health-related quality of life. Conclusion(s): Patients with psychosis with severe agoraphobic avoidance, such as being unable to leave the home, have high clinical need. Automated VR therapy can deliver clinical improvement in agoraphobia for these patients, leading to a number of wider benefits.
  • Developing an automated assessment of in-session patient activation for psychological therapy: Codevelopment approach

    Malins, Samuel; Manolescu, Cosmin; Higton, Fred; Waldram, David (2022)
    ACKGROUND: Patient activation is defined as a patient's confidence and perceived ability to manage their own health. Patient activation has been a consistent predictor of long-term health and care costs, particularly for people with multiple long-term health conditions. However, there is currently no means of measuring patient activation from what is said in health care consultations. This may be particularly important for psychological therapy because most current methods for evaluating therapy content cannot be used routinely due to time and cost restraints. Natural language processing (NLP) has been used increasingly to classify and evaluate the contents of psychological therapy. This aims to make the routine, systematic evaluation of psychological therapy contents more accessible in terms of time and cost restraints. However, comparatively little attention has been paid to algorithmic trust and interpretability, with few studies in the field involving end users or stakeholders in algorithm development. OBJECTIVE: This study applied a responsible design to use NLP in the development of an artificial intelligence model to automate the ratings assigned by a psychological therapy process measure: the consultation interactions coding scheme (CICS). The CICS assesses the level of patient activation observable from turn-by-turn psychological therapy interactions. METHODS: With consent, 128 sessions of remotely delivered cognitive behavioral therapy from 53 participants experiencing multiple physical and mental health problems were anonymously transcribed and rated by trained human CICS coders. Using participatory methodology, a multidisciplinary team proposed candidate language features that they thought would discriminate between high and low patient activation. The team included service-user researchers, psychological therapists, applied linguists, digital research experts, artificial intelligence ethics researchers, and NLP researchers. Identified language features were extracted from the transcripts alongside demographic features, and machine learning was applied using k-nearest neighbors and bagged trees algorithms to assess whether in-session patient activation and interaction types could be accurately classified. RESULTS: The k-nearest neighbors classifier obtained 73% accuracy (82% precision and 80% recall) in a test data set. The bagged trees classifier obtained 81% accuracy for test data (87% precision and 75% recall) in differentiating between interactions rated high in patient activation and those rated low or neutral. CONCLUSIONS: Coproduced language features identified through a multidisciplinary collaboration can be used to discriminate among psychological therapy session contents based on patient activation among patients experiencing multiple long-term physical and mental health conditions.
  • A positron mission tomography study of dopamine transporter density in patients with bipolar disorder with current mania and those with recently remitted mania

    Liddle, Peter F. (2022)
    IMPORTANCE: Although dopamine is implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), the precise alterations in the dopaminergic system remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess dopamine transporter (DAT) density in the striatum in patients with BD with current and recently remitted mania in comparison to healthy control individuals and its correlation with severity of manic symptoms. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care referral center for mood disorders in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, recruited 26 patients with BD (9 with current mania; 17 with recently remitted mania) and 21 matched healthy control individuals. DAT density was measured using positron emission tomography with [11C]d-threo-methylphenidate (MP). The differences between the groups in nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) for DAT was assessed using statistical parametric mapping. The study was conducted from November 2001 to February 2007 and the data were analyzed from November 2020 to December 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: DAT density as indexed by BPND for MP across groups; manic symptom severity as measured with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and correlated with BPND values in patients with BD. RESULTS: Of 47 total participants (mean [SD] age, 37.8 [14.4] years), 27 (57.4%) were female; 26 individuals had BD (9 with current mania and 17 with recently remitted mania) and there were 21 healthy control individuals. MP BPND was significantly lower in patients with BD in the right putamen and nucleus accumbens (mean reduction [MR] = 22%; cluster level familywise error [FWE]-corrected P < .001) as well as left putamen and caudate (MR = 24%; cluster level FWE-corrected P < .001). The reduction in BPND was more extensive and pronounced in patients with current mania, while patients with recently remitted mania had lower BPND in the left striatum but not the right. There was a significant negative correlation between YMRS scores and MP BPND in the right striatum in patients with current mania (ρ = -0.93; 95% CI, -0.99 to -0.69; P < .001) and those with recently remitted mania (ρ = 0.64; 95% CI, -0.86 to -0.23; P = .005) but not in the left striatum in either group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings indicate that mania was associated with reduced DAT density and remitted mania was associated with DAT levels that approximated those present in individuals without BD. These results have potential implications for drug development for mania.
  • Patriarchal upbringing in the 21st century: The impact emotional abuse related to parental styles has on the genesis of gender inequality and the development of unresolved trauma in children

    Hankir, Ahmed (2022)
    Background: Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) (physical, sexual, and psychological/emotional) is a type of structural discrimination that violates the basic human rights of females on a global scale. Cultural norms that glorify male dominance, power imbalances, and abuse of authority are the most encountered reasons for VAWG. Emotional abuse, which can start in childhood, is widely recognised as the most prevalent form of VAWG. However, although victims of emotional abuse usually suffer terribly, perpetrators often evade accountability. Emotional abuse is underestimated in part because it is normalized by victims who are mostly women and girls. The normalization of VAWG is contributing to the propagation and perpetuation of biased perceptions of sexism. The intergenerational transmission of parenting styles - which is an important contributory factor for child development - often includes gender-stereotyping norms, or patriarchy. Hitherto, limited focus has been directed towards the consequences that emotional abuse related to patriarchal upbringing has on children. Aim - to investigate if emotional abuse related to patriarchal upbringing influences the perception of sexism and gender stereotyping across genders, and the development of unresolved trauma in children. Method(s): Participants were recruited via social media platforms to complete online questionnaires assessing parental emotional abuse, control, trauma, misogyny, and perceptions of sexism. Parametric analyses were conducted on the 188 participants (158 women and 30 men) recruited. Trauma and perceptions of sexism were statistically analysed using correlation and multiple linear regression. Result(s): Our findings show that parental emotional abuse and control in females predicted for unresolved traumatic experiences (16.6%). Misogynistic culture and male gender predicted for hostile sexism (9.9%), whereas emotional abuse predicted for benevolent sexism (40%). Conclusion(s): Emotional abuse related to patriarchal upbringing contributes to the genesis of gender inequality and unresolved trauma in children. Given that parental styles are transmitted from one generation to the next, to reduce sexism and improve mental health outcomes, the patriarchal parental cycle must be broken.
  • Stroke and TIA survivors' perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine and influences on its uptake: Cross sectional survey

    Kontou, Eirini (2022)
    Background: People who have experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) have greater risks of complications from COVID-19. Therefore, vaccine uptake in this vulnerable population is important. To prevent vaccine hesitancy and maximise compliance, we need to better understand individuals' views on the vaccine. Objective(s): We aimed to explore perspectives of the COVID-19 vaccine and influences on its uptake from people who have experienced a stroke or TIA. Method(s): A cross-sectional, electronic survey comprising multiple choice and free text questions. Convenience sampling was used to recruit people who have experienced a stroke/TIA in the UK/Ireland. Result(s): The survey was completed by 377 stroke/TIA survivors. 87% (328/377) had either received the first vaccine dose or were booked to have it. The vaccine was declined by 2% (7/377) and 3% (11/377) had been offered the vaccine but not yet taken it up. 8% (30/377) had not been offered the vaccine despite being eligible. Some people expressed concerns around the safety of the vaccine (particularly risk of blood clots and stroke) and some were hesitant to have the second vaccine. Societal and personal benefits were motivations for vaccine uptake. There was uncertainty and lack of information about risk of COVID-19 related complications specifically for people who have experienced a stroke or TIA. Conclusion(s): Despite high uptake of the first vaccine, some people with stroke and TIA have legitimate concerns and information needs that should be addressed. Our findings can be used to identify targets for behaviour change to improve vaccine uptake specific to stroke/TIA patients
  • "Self" and "other": A conceptual bridge linking normal with pathological personality

    Howard, Richard C. (2022)
    The goal of this paper is to try and close the gap between the ways in which pathological and normal personality, including their development, are conceptualized. To this end, attention is drawn to parallels that exist between the ways self-function is conceptualized in contemporary personality psychology and in recent iterations of the major psychiatric nosologies, particularly ICD-11. Conceptualizations in both normal and abnormal personality see a fundamental dichotomy between self as identity and self as socially interdependent (vs autonomous). Evidence is reviewed supporting a basic dichotomy between two categories of personality pathology that can be subsumed under the labels "Acting Out" and "Anxious-Inhibited." It is suggested that fundamental to the personality pathology subsumed under "Acting Out" is a deficient interdependent self, while a defective self-identity is proposed to underlie the personality pathology subsumed under "Anxious-Inhibited."
  • Positive psychology and attitudes to ageing in people aged 50 and over in the United Kingdom

    Orrell, Martin; Jones, Katy A. (2022)
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether attitudes to ageing were associated with attitudes to positive psychology constructs.Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of 572 UK adults aged 50+ (mean age 64.6 years, SD = 8.4, 73.8% female) assessed attitudes to ageing using the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) in relation to measures of positive psychology including (1) belief in a just world-Just World Scale (JWS-Self and JWS-Other), (2) sense of coherence-Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and (3) positive well-being-Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization, and Pleasure Scale (CASP-19). Other factors included difficulties with hearing and eyesight, relative and carer status and demographics.Results: People with hearing and eyesight difficulties had lower CASP-19 and SOC scores, and more negative attitudes to ageing compared to people without sensory problems. Hierarchical regression analyses showed all three positive psychology scales predicted more positive attitudes to ageing. Being a carer for a person with dementia was associated with more negative attitudes to ageing.Conclusion: Whereas health and sensory problems relate to more negative attitudes to ageing, this study highlights the importance of positive psychological factors which could inform approaches seeking to promote well-being and health in older people.
  • Mental health of Indonesian university students: U.K. comparison and relationship between mental health shame and self-compassion

    Kotera, Yasuhiro (2022)
    While the Indonesian higher education has been growing rapidly, poor student mental health including a high level of mental health shame is a cause for concern in Indonesia. This study aimed to evaluate their mental health, shame, and self-compassion. One hundred fifty six participants completed self-report measures regarding mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and stress), mental health shame (negative attitudes, and external, internal, and reflected shame), and self-compassion. Data were first compared with 145 U.K. students, then correlation and regression analyses were performed. Indonesian students showed higher levels of mental health problems, family-related mental health shame, and self-compassion than U.K. students. Each type of mental health problem and mental health shame were positively associated with each other. Self-compassion was negatively associated with mental health problems, but not with mental health shame. Self-compassion was consistently the strongest predictor of mental health problems. Among the mental health shame types, only family external shame predicted the level of depression. Self-compassion training and mental health education for their family are recommended to protect the mental health of university students in Indonesia. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: journal abstract)
  • Pioneering an innovative intervention to reduce mental health related stigma in muslim communities: A protocol

    Hankir, Ahmed (2022)
    Despite the prevalence of mental health related stigma in Muslim communities, there are only a limited number of intervention studies reported in the literature. Digital interventions (i.e., YouTube clips, videos) are relatively cheap, highly accessible and easily disseminated and are increasingly being used to improve mental health literacy and reduce mental health related stigma. However, as far as the authors are aware, there are no stigma reduction programmes targeting Muslim communities that leverage digital interventions reported in the literature. This paper outlines a protocol for a digital intervention to challenge mental health related stigma in Muslim communities. The proposed intervention will be a 5 to 10-minute YouTube clip/video the active ingredients of which will be: [1] an interview with a Muslim expert by lived/living experience, [2] an Imam (Muslim faith leader) and [3] a psychiatrist. We will recruit members of Muslim communities living in Muslim minority countries in the Global North (United Kingdom, Unites States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) to participate in the study (inclusion criteria: adults aged 18 years and over, Muslim background). The study will be comprised of two groups: an active group that will be exposed to the Muslim faith appropriate digital intervention and a control group that will be exposed to a digital intervention that is not Muslim faith appropriate. We will administer validated psychometric stigma scales on participants in both groups before and after exposure to the interventions. We hypothesize that viewing an anti-stigma clip/video that is Islamic faith appropriate will be associated with greater reductions in mental health related stigma in members of Muslim communities compared to viewing an anti-stigma clip/video that is not Islamic faith appropriate.
  • Emotional abuse in women and girls mediated by patriarchal upbringing and its impact on sexism and mental health: A narrative review

    Hankir, Ahmed (2022)
    Sexism is a type of structural discrimination that can manifest as the subjugation of woman in familial and social roles. Gender-based violence often occurs in societies where patriarchal norms exist. Violence against women and girls (VAWG) includes physical, sexual and psychological/emotional abuse directed towards females. Emotional violence against women and girls is usually underestimated, if not overlooked. Patriarchal upbringing can predominantly result in the emotional abuse of female children. This narrative review will discuss the impact emotional abuse in women and girls mediated by patriarchal upbringing has on sexism and mental health. This paper will also explore how gendered upbringing can contribute to the normalization of VAWG and the victim-blaming of females.
  • Innovative interventions to reduce the stigma attached to intellectual disabilities: A narrative review

    Hankir, Ahmed (2022)
    The stigma attached to intellectual disabilities (ID) can have profoundly adverse effects on the lives of people who suffer from these conditions. Stigma is also a major barrier to accessing specialist services and consequently many people with ID continue to suffer in silence. A confidential inquiry into the premature deaths of people with ID in England and Wales revealed the median age at death of individuals with this condition was 13 years (for males) to 20 years (for females) younger than the median age at death of the general population. It has been posited that stigma is a factor that contributes to the mortality gap between those with ID and those who don't have this condition. The COVID-19 pandemic has created new challenges for people with ID and has further fortified the barriers to specialist services. To reduce stigma, improve the quality of healthcare that is provided to people with this condition and to break down the barriers to specialist services, we must pioneer innovative interventions that leverage the power of technology and 'virtual' contact with people who live with these conditions.
  • 'Paris Thin': The mental health of models

    Hankir, Ahmed (2022)
    Surprising it may seem, the mental health issues remains largely overlooked in the highly competitive and unforgiving industry of modelling and fashion. A substantial number of models experience mental health issues due to the nature of their occupation, however, most avoid speaking out due to fear of stigma and losing out on future work. Moreover, problematic eating behaviours in attempts to improve body image can have profoundly adverse effects on mental and physical health, even leading to death in extreme cases, yet these behaviours are being reinforced and rewarded with success and career progression. Indeed, the term 'Paris Thin' was used in relation to the deaths of models from starvation who were in pursuit of 'the perfect body' whilst working in France, the epicentre of the fashion world. Although improvements have been made over the past decade, conversations surrounding common mental disorders such as depression and anxiety remain minimal at best and discussions about other serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder are virtually absent. Campaigns that amplify the voices of models living with a mental health condition must therefore be supported to reduce mental health related stigma in the industry and encourage those who are suffering and struggling to seek professional help. Research in this area is urgently needed to yield new insights that will help to improve the mental health of models.<
  • Design decisions and data completeness for experience sampling methods used in psychosis: systematic review

    Deakin, Emilia; Ng, Fiona; Young, Emma; Thorpe, Naomi; Craven, Michael P.; Slade, Mike (2022)
    Background: The experience sampling method (ESM) is an intensive longitudinal research method. Participants complete questionnaires at multiple times about their current or very recent state. The design of ESM studies is complex. People with psychosis have been shown to be less adherent to ESM study protocols than the general population. It is not known how to design studies that increase adherence to study protocols. A lack of typology makes it is hard for researchers to decide how to collect data in a way that allows for methodological rigour, quality of reporting, and the ability to synthesise findings. The aims of this systematic review were to characterise the design choices made in ESM studies monitoring the daily lives of people with psychosis, and to synthesise evidence relating the data completeness to different design choices. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of published literature on studies using ESM with people with psychosis. Studies were included if they used digital technology for data collection and reported the completeness of the data set. The constant comparative method was used to identify design decisions, using inductive identification of design decisions with simultaneous comparison of design decisions observed. Weighted regression was used to identify design decisions that predicted data completeness. The review was pre-registered (PROSPERO CRD42019125545). Results: 38 studies were included. A typology of design choices used in ESM studies was developed, which comprised three superordinate categories of design choice: Study context, ESM approach and ESM implementation. Design decisions that predict data completeness include type of ESM protocol used, length of time participants are enrolled in the study, and if there is contact with the research team during data collection. Conclusions: This review identified a range of design decisions used in studies using ESM in the context of psychosis. Design decisions that influence data completeness were identified. Findings will help the design and reporting of future ESM studies. Results are presented with the focus on psychosis, but the findings can be applied across different mental health populations.
  • Remote delivery of group-based psychological interventions for people after stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA): a scoping review

    Kontou, Eirini; Thorpe, Naomi (2022)
    Psychological wellebeing and quality of life are frequently affected following stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Evidence suggests that psychological interventions post diagnosis can benefit individuals' mental health and physical wellbeing. The COVID-19 pandemic has meant that alternatives to traditional face-to-face interventions have come to the forefront. Remote delivery of psychological interventions can be feasible, but it is unclear whether they are best suited for group-based programmes. To our knowledge, no previous review has specifically examined the remote delivery of group psychological interventions in TIA/stroke. This scoping review intends to identify the current evidence and delivery formats of online group-based psychological and psychoeducational interventions for people after TIA and stroke. This review follows the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews. Four electronic databases were searched (April 2022) for articles on online group-based psychological/psychoeducational interventions delivered in digital formats through web- and app-based methods. Four reviewers conducted the screening process, with a fifth resolving any disagreements. Screening will be completed in June 2022. Initial searches yielded 748 results. It is expected that six to eight papers will be included. As the review is underway, full results will be available at the conference. Findings summarise the published evidence on remotely-delivered group psychological interventions in TIA and stroke. This review will inform the development of future online psychological interventions for stroke/TIA and enable us to identify potential barriers and facilitators to implementation. Practice-based recommendations and future directions of research in this area will be presented.
  • Positive psychology and attitudes to ageing in people aged 50 and over in the United Kingdom

    Orrell, Martin; Jones, Katy A. (2022)
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether attitudes to ageing were associated with attitudes to positive psychology constructs.Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of 572 UK adults aged 50+ (mean age 64.6 years, SD = 8.4, 73.8% female) assessed attitudes to ageing using the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) in relation to measures of positive psychology including (1) belief in a just world-Just World Scale (JWS-Self and JWS-Other), (2) sense of coherence-Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and (3) positive well-being-Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization, and Pleasure Scale (CASP-19). Other factors included difficulties with hearing and eyesight, relative and carer status and demographics.Results: People with hearing and eyesight difficulties had lower CASP-19 and SOC scores, and more negative attitudes to ageing compared to people without sensory problems. Hierarchical regression analyses showed all three positive psychology scales predicted more positive attitudes to ageing. Being a carer for a person with dementia was associated with more negative attitudes to ageing.Conclusion: Whereas health and sensory problems relate to more negative attitudes to ageing, this study highlights the importance of positive psychological factors which could inform approaches seeking to promote well-being and health in older people.

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