Now showing items 1-20 of 5541

    • Nursing interventions to reduce medication errors in paediatrics and neonates: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Marufu, Takawira C; Bower, Rachel; Hendron, Elizabeth; Manning, Joseph C (WB Saunders, 2021-09-07)
      Medication errors are a great concern to health care organisations as they are costly and pose a significant risk to patients. Children are three times more likely to be affected by medication errors than adults with medication administration error rates reported to be over 70%. To identify nursing interventions to reduce medication administration errors and perform a meta-analysis. Online databases; British Nursing Index (BNI), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for relevant studies published between January 2000 to 2020. Studies with clear primary or secondary aims focusing on interventions to reduce medication administration errors in paediatrics, children and or neonates were included in the review. 442 studies were screened and18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven interventions were identified from included studies; education programmes, medication information services, clinical pharmacist involvement, double checking, barriers to reduce interruptions during drug calculation and preparation, implementation of smart pumps and improvement strategies. Educational interventional aspects were the most common identified in 13 out of 18 included studies. Meta-analysis demonstrated an associated 64% reduction in medicine administration errors post intervention (pooled OR 0.36 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.21–0.63) P = 0.0003). Medication safety education is an important element of interventions to reduce administration errors. Medication errors are multifaceted that require a bundle interventional approach to address the complexities and dynamics relevant to the local context. It is imperative that causes of errors need to be identified prior to implementation of appropriate interventions. • Medication errors are multifacceted requring complex intervetion. • Causes of errors need to be identified prior implementation of appropriate intervetions. • Medication safety education is an integral element of interventions in a bid to reduce administration errors. • Interdisciplinary collaboration in the medication process contributes to the reduction of medication administration errors.
    • Isolated tectal cavernomas: A comprehensive literature review with a case presentation

      Asfour, Hasan
      ntracranial cavernous angiomas or cavernomas (ICCs) are abnormal blood-filled vasculatures made of mono-endothelial layer and characterized by their bubble-like caverns. Brainstem cavernomas (BSCs) is a critical form of ICCs since slight changes in the lesion can result in devastating or life-threatening outcomes. We hereby present a rare case of BSC developed in the mesencephalic tectum with intraventricular bleeding and Parinaud's Syndrome. Our patient was managed by complete surgical resection of the lesion through an infra-tentorial supracerebellar approach. Additionally, we reviewed and analyzed the hitherto reported cases of isolated tectal cavernomas (TCs) in the literature, including our case, to elucidate the main factors associated with the management outcomes of TCs. There have been 25 cases of isolated TC reported until now. Most of the patients were adults between 18-77 y of age, except for two children (7 and 13 y). There was no sex predominance. Symptomatic patients presented with headache 56%, altered level of consciousness 24%, and/or double vision 20%. Most cases (64%) had hemorrhagic lesions at presentation, and 60% of all cases experienced recurrent hemorrhages. Parinaud's Syndrome was recorded in five cases, including the current one. All cases affected with Parinaud's were males. Lesion size was a determinant of the outcome as larger lesions were more likely to result in persistent deficits. Surgical resection of the lesion was an effective management modality with ∼79% (15/19) of patients who underwent surgery ended up with complete recovery.
    • Antiplatelets or anticoagulants? Secondary prevention in cervical artery dissection: an updated meta-analysis

      The, Ei Zune
      Background: Extracranial artery dissection involving either internal carotid artery or vertebral artery is a major cause of stroke in adults under 50 years of age. There is no conclusive evidence whether antiplatelets or anticoagulants are better suited in the treatment of extracranial artery dissection. Objectives: To determine whether antiplatelets or anticoagulants have advantage over the other in the treatment of extracranial artery dissection for secondary prevention of recurrent ischemic events or death. Methods: Present meta-analysis followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 statement. Database search was done in Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and from inception to May 2021 using pre-defined search strategy. Additional studies were identified from reference lists from included studies, reviews and previous meta-analyses. Outcome measures were ischaemic stroke, ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and death. Results: Two RCTs and 64 observational studies were included in the meta-analysis. While the outcome measures of stroke, stroke or TIA and death were numerically higher with antiplatelet use, there were no statistically significant differences between antiplatelets and anticoagulants. Conclusion: We found no significant difference between antiplatelet and anticoagulation treatment after extracranial artery dissection. The choice of treatment should be tailored to individual cases. Keywords: Anticoagulants; Aspirin; Extracranial artery dissection; Internal carotid artery; Meta-analysis; Secondary prevention; Stroke; Vertebral artery.
    • A multicentre qualitative study of patient skin surgery experience during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK

      Gnanappiragasam, Dushyanth; Veitch, David; Wernham, Aaron
      Understanding patient concerns regarding skin surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic is a vital way of learning from individual experiences. A shift towards using superficial absorbable sutures (AS) has been anecdotally observed. We explored patient attitudes to the use of AS, and their experiences and perceptions of attending for skin surgery during the pandemic. In total, 35 participants were interviewed (74% men, 100% white British; mean age 72.5 years, range 43-95 years). Participants reported that they were reassured by precautions taken to minimize exposure and risk from COVID-19. The majority (86%) did not feel that personal protective equipment worn by staff impaired their experience, and 29% reported that their experience of attending for skin surgery during the lockdown period was more efficient and organized than on prepandemic visits. The vast majority (94%) of participants would opt to have AS again or had no strong preference for either suture type. Based on their experiences, most participants would have no concerns about attending for further skin surgery during the pandemic and would opt to have AS.
    • Local anesthetics in dermatologic surgery: a review of adjuncts and pain reduction techniques

      Gnanappiragasam, Dushyanth; Veitch, David; Wernham, Aaron (2022-05-27)
      A variety of local anesthetic adjuncts exist for dermatological surgery. Similarly, many options to reduce the pain of local anesthesia exist. This review aims to summarise the evidence relating to local anesthetic adjuncts and methods to reduce the pain of local anesthesia. Adjuncts to local anesthetics can be an important consideration to optimise anesthetic effect. Current evidence suggests that buffering and warming local anesthetics, skin cooling, pinching, as well as administering vibrations to the skin are effective at reducing pain during administration. No significant difference was found between administering vibrations and skin cooling with regards to reducing pain. Studies demonstrate that overall, local anesthesia injection into distal sites is safe. However, there remains limited evidence specific to dermatologic surgery supporting ways to reduce pain during local anesthetic injection, and in determining the safety of local anesthetics for distal sites with confidence. Further high-quality research in the form of multi-centre randomised trials is required.
    • Translation into Spanish and Field-Testing of a New Score for Evaluating Psoriasis Severity: The Simplified Psoriasis Index (SPI)

      Helbling, Ingrid (2022-04)
      Background: The simplified psoriasis index (SPI) was developed in the United Kingdom to provide a simple summary measure for monitoring changes in psoriasis severity and associated psychosocial impact as well as for obtaining information about past disease behavior and treatment. Two complementary versions of the SPI allow for self-assessment by the patient or professional assessment by a doctor or nurse. Both versions have proven responsive to change, reliable, and interpretable, and to correlate well with assessment tools that are widely used in clinical trials - the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and the Dermatology Quality of Life Index. The SPI has already been translated into several languages, including French, Brazilian Portuguese, Dutch, Arabic, and Thai. Objective: To translate the professional and self-assessment versions of the SPI to Spanish and to field test the translations. Method: A medically qualified native Spanish speaker translated both versions of the SPI into Spanish. The Spanish translations were discussed by comparing them to blinded back translations into English undertaken by native English speakers; the Spanish texts were then revised in an iterative process involving the translators, 4 dermatologists, and 20 patients. The patients scored their own experience of psoriasis with the self-assessment version and commented on it. The process involved checking the conceptual accuracy of the translation, language-related differences, and subtle gradations of meaning in a process involving all translators and a panel of both Spanish- and English-speaking dermatologists, including a coauthor of the SPI. Results: The final self-assessment and professional Spanish versions of the SPI are presented in this manuscript. Conclusions: Castilian Spanish translations of both versions of the SPI are now available for monitoring disease changes in Spanish-speaking patients with psoriasis under routine clinical care.
    • Healing of ExcisionAl wounds on Lower legs by Secondary intention (HEALS) Cohort: Feasibility data from a multi-centre prospective observational cohort study to inform a future Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT)

      Veitch, David (2022-06-03)
      Background: Compression therapy is considered beneficial for lower limb post-surgical wounds healing by secondary intention, however there is a lack of supportive evidence. To plan a randomised controlled trial suitable data is needed. Objectives: Determine feasibility of recruitment and estimate recruitment rate Understand the standard post-operative wound management pathway Determine uptake of optional additional clinic visit for healing confirmation Explore patient acceptability of compression bandaging and a future RCT METHODS: Participant recruitment over 22 months from secondary care Dermatology clinics. Eligibility criteria: INCLUSION: over 18 years; planned excision of keratinocyte cancer on lower leg with healing by secondary intention; ankle-brachial pressure index ≥ 0.8 EXCLUSION: planned primary closure/graft or flap; unable to receive/comply/tolerate high compression; planned compression; suspected melanoma Followed up weekly (maximum 6 months) in secondary care clinics and/or by telephone. Information collected on healthcare resource use, unplanned compression, wound healing, optional clinic visit to confirm healing. Results: 58 patients recruited from 9 secondary care dermatology clinics in 22 months. Mean recruitment/centre/month was 0.8 (range 0.1-2.3). Four centres had dedicated Research Nurse support. The analysis population (n=53) attended weekly follow-up assessments. Standard care clinical contacts were: GP visits 7(1.2%), Community Nurse visits 169(28.5%), Practice nurse visits 189(31.8%), and Dermatology clinic visits 138(23.2%). Participants whose wounds healed, 34/45(75.6%) attended an optional clinic visit. Conclusions: Data were obtained to inform a future RCT. Recruitment rates are higher in centres with dedicated research support. People would be willing to take part in a trial and attend a confirmation of healing visit.
    • Healing of ExcisionAl wounds on Lower legs by Secondary intention (HEALS) Cohort Study: A multi-centre prospective observational cohort study in patients without planned compression

      Veitch, David
      Background: There is no agreed treatment pathway following excision of keratinocyte cancers. Compression therapy is considered beneficial for secondary intention healing on the lower limb, however there is a lack of supportive evidence. To plan a randomised controlled trial suitable data is needed. This paper reports a multi-centre prospective observational cohort study in this patient population, to inform a future trial design. Objectives: 1. To estimate the time to healing in wounds healing by secondary intention without planned post-operative compression, following excision of keratinocyte cancers on the lower leg 2. To characterise the patient population including factors affecting healing 3. To assess the incidence of complications METHODS: INCLUSION CRITERIA: People over 18 years; planned excision of keratinocyte cancer on lower leg with healing by secondary intention; ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) greater than or equal to 0.8; written informed consent EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Planned: primary closure, skin graft or flap; compression therapy for another indication; unable to receive, comply or tolerate high compression; planned compression; suspected diagnosis other than keratinocyte cancer. Results: This study recruited 58 patients from 9 secondary care dermatology clinics. In the analysis population (n=53): mean age was 81 (range 25-97) years; median time to healing was 81(95% Confidence Interval:73-92) days and at 6-month 45 patients (84.9%) had healed. Healing prognostic factors were wound parameters, and ABPI. Wound infections occurred in 16 participants(30.2%) and 4(7.5%) were admitted to hospital. Conclusions: Data collected has informed the RCT preparation. A relatively high (7.5-15%) proportion of wounds not healed, incidence of infection and hospital admissions demonstrated the need for clearly establishing potentially effective treatments and improve outcomes for this population.
    • A Genetics-First Approach to Dissecting the Heterogeneity of Autism: Phenotypic Comparison of Autism Risk Copy Number Variants

      Barwell, Julian; Vasudevan, Pradeep (2021-01)
      Objective: Certain copy number variants (CNVs) greatly increase the risk of autism. The authors conducted a genetics-first study to investigate whether heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of autism is underpinned by specific genotype-phenotype relationships. Methods: This international study included 547 individuals (mean age, 12.3 years [SD=4.2], 54% male) who were ascertained on the basis of having a genetic diagnosis of a rare CNV associated with high risk of autism (82 16p11.2 deletion carriers, 50 16p11.2 duplication carriers, 370 22q11.2 deletion carriers, and 45 22q11.2 duplication carriers), as well as 2,027 individuals (mean age, 9.1 years [SD=4.9], 86% male) with autism of heterogeneous etiology. Assessments included the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and IQ testing. Results: The four genetic variant groups differed in autism symptom severity, autism subdomain profile, and IQ profile. However, substantial variability was observed in phenotypic outcome in individual genetic variant groups (74%-97% of the variance, depending on the trait), whereas variability between groups was low (1%-21%, depending on the trait). CNV carriers who met autism criteria were compared with individuals with heterogeneous autism, and a range of profile differences were identified. When clinical cutoff scores were applied, 54% of individuals with one of the four CNVs who did not meet full autism diagnostic criteria had elevated levels of autistic traits. Conclusions: Many CNV carriers do not meet full diagnostic criteria for autism but nevertheless meet clinical cutoffs for autistic traits. Although profile differences between variants were observed, there is considerable variability in clinical symptoms in the same variant.
    • 'We have been in lockdown since he was born': a mixed methods exploration of the experiences of families caring for children with intellectual disability during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK

      Barwell, Julian; Vasudevan, Pradeep (2021-09)
      Objectives: This study aimed to explore the experiences of parents caring for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) during the UK national lockdown in spring 2020, resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: Participants were identified using opportunity sampling from the IMAGINE-ID national (UK) cohort and completed an online survey followed by a semistructured interview. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Setting: Interviews were conducted over the telephone in July 2020 as the first UK lockdown was ending. Participants: 23 mothers of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities aged 5-15 years were recruited. Results: Themes reported by parents included: managing pre-existing challenges during a time of extreme change, having mixed emotions about the benefits and difficulties that arose during the lockdown and the need for appropriate, individualised support. Conclusions: Our findings confirm observations previously found in UK parents of children with IDD and provide new insights on the use of technology during the pandemic for schooling and healthcare, as well as the need for regular check-ins.
    • Childhood intellectual disability and parents' mental health: integrating social, psychological and genetic influences

      Barwell, Julian; Vasudevan, Pradeep (2021-06)
      Background: Intellectual disability has a complex effect on the well-being of affected individuals and their families. Previous research has identified multiple risk and protective factors for parental mental health, including socioeconomic circumstances and child behaviour. Aims: This study explored whether genetic cause of childhood intellectual disability contributes to parental well-being. Method: Children from across the UK with intellectual disability due to diverse genetic causes were recruited to the IMAGINE-ID study. Primary carers completed the Development and Well-being Assessment, including a measure of parental distress (Everyday Feeling Questionnaire). Genetic diagnoses were broadly categorised into aneuploidy, chromosomal rearrangements, copy number variants (CNVs) and single nucleotide variants. Results: Compared with the UK general population, IMAGINE-ID parents (n = 888) reported significantly elevated emotional distress (Cohen's d = 0.546). Within-sample variation was related to recent life events and the perceived impact of children's difficulties. Impact was predicted by child age, physical disability, autistic characteristics and other behavioural difficulties. Genetic diagnosis also predicted impact, indirectly influencing parental well-being. Specifically, CNVs were associated with higher impact, not explained by CNV inheritance, neighbourhood deprivation or family structure. Conclusions: The mental health of parents caring for a child with intellectual disability is influenced by child and family factors, converging on parental appraisal of impact. We found that genetic aetiologies, broadly categorised, also influence impact and thereby family risks. Recognition of these risk factors could improve access to support for parents, reduce their long-term mental health needs and improve well-being of individuals with intellectual disability.
    • Dissection of contiguous gene effects for deletions around ERF on chromosome 19

      Vasudevan, Pradeep (2021-07)
      Heterozygous intragenic loss-of-function mutations of ERF, encoding an ETS transcription factor, were previously reported to cause a novel craniosynostosis syndrome, suggesting that ERF is haploinsufficient. We describe six families harboring heterozygous deletions including, or near to, ERF, of which four were characterized by whole-genome sequencing and two by chromosomal microarray. Based on the severity of associated intellectual disability (ID), we identify three categories of ERF-associated deletions. The smallest (32 kb) and only inherited deletion included two additional centromeric genes and was not associated with ID. Three larger deletions (264-314 kb) that included at least five further centromeric genes were associated with moderate ID, suggesting that deletion of one or more of these five genes causes ID. The individual with the most severe ID had a more telomerically extending deletion, including CIC, a known ID gene. Children found to harbor ERF deletions should be referred for craniofacial assessment, to exclude occult raised intracranial pressure.
    • Variants in GNAI1 cause a syndrome associated with variable features including developmental delay, seizures, and hypotonia

      Powell, Corinna; Vasudevan, Pradeep (2021-05)
      Purpose: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) encompass a spectrum of genetically heterogeneous disorders with features that commonly include developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorders. We sought to delineate the molecular and phenotypic spectrum of a novel neurodevelopmental disorder caused by variants in the GNAI1 gene. Methods: Through large cohort trio-based exome sequencing and international data-sharing, we identified 24 unrelated individuals with NDD phenotypes and a variant in GNAI1, which encodes the inhibitory Gαi1 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins. We collected detailed genotype and phenotype information for each affected individual. Results: We identified 16 unique variants in GNAI1 in 24 affected individuals; 23 occurred de novo and 1 was inherited from a mosaic parent. Most affected individuals have a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Core features include global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and epilepsy. Conclusion: This collaboration establishes GNAI1 variants as a cause of NDDs. GNAI1-related NDD is most often characterized by severe to profound delays, hypotonia, epilepsy that ranges from self-limiting to intractable, behavior problems, and variable mild dysmorphic features.
    • The contribution of X-linked coding variation to severe developmental disorders

      Vasudevan, Pradeep (2021-01)
      Over 130 X-linked genes have been robustly associated with developmental disorders, and X-linked causes have been hypothesised to underlie the higher developmental disorder rates in males. Here, we evaluate the burden of X-linked coding variation in 11,044 developmental disorder patients, and find a similar rate of X-linked causes in males and females (6.0% and 6.9%, respectively), indicating that such variants do not account for the 1.4-fold male bias. We develop an improved strategy to detect X-linked developmental disorders and identify 23 significant genes, all of which were previously known, consistent with our inference that the vast majority of the X-linked burden is in known developmental disorder-associated genes. Importantly, we estimate that, in male probands, only 13% of inherited rare missense variants in known developmental disorder-associated genes are likely to be pathogenic. Our results demonstrate that statistical analysis of large datasets can refine our understanding of modes of inheritance for individual X-linked disorders.
    • Desmoid fibromatosis associated with Endobutton use for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

      Onafowokan, Oluwatobi; Aujla, Randeep; Eastley, Nicholas; Ashford, Robert
      No abstract available
    • Intra-articular steroid injections in large joint arthritis: A survey of current practice

      Loumpardias, Georgios; Boksh, Khalis; Chong, Han Hong; Eastley, Nicholas
      Introduction: Intra-articular corticosteroid injections are widely used as a management modality for mild large joint osteoarthritis (OA). In contrast, there is little guidance or consensus on the use of steroids in moderate to severe disease. The aim of this study is to explore the current practice of surgeons in relation to the use of therapeutic intra-articular steroid injections in patients awaiting large joint arthroplasty for OA. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to consultants performing large joint arthroplasty in four National Health Service Trusts. Participants were questioned on their use of intra-articular therapeutic steroid injections in patients listed for elbow, shoulder, hip or knee arthroplasty. Data was collected over 6 months and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Results: A total of 42 surgeons were included in the study with the majority performing lower limb arthroplasty (73%). About 21 (50%) surgeons indicated they would perform injections in the patient group of interest. Two would perform an unlimited number of injections, whilst the remainder would perform between one and three injections. Respondents most commonly indicated they would tell patients that an injection would provide between 6 and 12 weeks of benefit (14 of 39 surgeons, 36%). Most injecting surgeons (88%) leave 4 months between an injection and subsequent arthroplasty due to increased risk of infection if surgery is performed sooner. Conclusion: This study demonstrates variation in practice in the use of intra-articular steroids in the analysed patient group, and the way surgeons council their patients. National or specialist society guidelines may help to reduce this variation in practice.
    • Should Arthroscopic Bone Marrow Stimulation Be Used in the Management of Secondary Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus? A Systematic Review

      Bhatia, Maneesh
      Background: Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common, particularly after trauma. Arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation has emerged as the first-choice surgical treatment for small primary lesions less than 100 mm2. Individual studies on the topic are small and heterogeneous, and they have differed in their main findings; for this reason, systematically reviewing the available evidence seems important. Questions/purposes: In this systematic review, we asked: (1) What patient-reported outcomes and pain scores have been observed after arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation for secondary osteochondral lesions of the talus? (2) What complications were reported? (3) What demographic and clinical factors were reported to be associated with better patient-reported outcome scores? Methods: We performed a systematic review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using Embase, EmCare, PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus (databases last searched June 23, 2021). A two-stage title/abstract and full-text screening process was performed independently by two reviewers. Randomized control trials, cohort studies, and observational studies published in English that evaluated the outcome of arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation for secondary osteochondral lesions of the talus were included. Case reports, review articles, commentaries, abstracts, and letters to the editor were excluded. A total of 12 articles (10 case series and two retrospective comparative studies) involving 446 patients were included. Of these, 111 patients with a mean age of 33 years (range 20 to 49) received arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation for a secondary osteochondral lesion of the talus. The Methodological Index for Non-randomized Studies (MINORS) criteria were used to assess the methodologic quality of included studies. The MINORS is a numerical score ranging from 0 to 16 for studies with no comparison group and 0 to 24 for comparative studies, with higher quality studies receiving higher scores. Of the 10 noncomparative case series, the highest score was 10 of 16, with a median (range) score of 7.5 (4 to 10), while the two comparative studies scored 22 of 24 and 19 of 24, respectively. Results: Studies varied widely in terms of patient-reported outcome measures such as the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score (AOFAS), with inconsistent reporting across studies regarding whether or how much patients improved; there was variation in some effect sizes with regard to improvement seeming close to or below the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). Although no perioperative complications were reported in any included studies, 34% (26 of 77, in seven studies that reported on this endpoint) of patients who underwent a revision procedure. One study found a negative association between lesion size and AOFAS and VAS score. No other studies reported on factors associated with patient-reported outcome scores, and most studies were far too small to explore relationships of this sort. Conclusion: We found that arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation for secondary osteochondral lesions of the talus yielded inconsistent and often small improvements in patient-reported outcomes, with approximately one in three patients undergoing a revision procedure. Reported outcomes likely represent a best-case scenario, inflated by low-level study designs and major sources of bias that are known to make treatment effects seem larger than they are. Therefore, the use of arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation in such patients cannot be recommended, unless we are able to refine selection criteria to effectively identify patients who show a substantial clinical benefit.
    • Alteration of anterior cruciate ligament orientation in knees with trochlear dysplasia: description of a novel angle on MRI

      Esler, Colin; Rennie, Winston (2022)
      Aim: To assess changes in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) geometry and inclination in trochlear dysplasia (TD) and analyse their significance. Materials and methods: Ninety-nine consecutive knees with TD and 23 normal knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were included as controls (n=122). Varying degrees of TD were classified into four distinct groups (A-D) according to the Dejour classification. MRI images were reviewed independently to measure four ACL angles. Interobserver and intra-observer agreements with statistical significance were determined for TD and various angles. Results: A significant association was found between TD and two measured angles compared with the control group (sagittal ACL and anteromedial ACL angles, p<0.001 for each). The results indicate that TD can predispose to more vertical ACL inclination as measured in the coronal plane on MRI. No association was found with the Blumenstat angle. Conclusion: The present study found significant associations with TD and steeper sagittal ACL, which have been implicated in ACL failure. A novel angle (anteromedial ACL angle) is described which has significant association with TD and is specific for the anteromedial bundle as measured in the coronal plane. Careful consideration of ACL fibre orientation in the coronal plane on MRI is suggested in knees with TD and the use of this newly described angle in assessing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) grafts.
    • Use of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics following excision of ulcerated skin lesions in the UK: a national, multispeciality survey of clinicians

      Wernham, Aaron (2022-05)
      Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the UK, and up to a third of lesions are ulcerated at the time of excision. Ulceration has been shown to increase the risk of developing surgical site infection following excision, with some studies finding infection rates of 33%. However, no specific guidelines for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in such cases exist. We surveyed 129 clinicians (covering Dermatology, Plastic Surgery, Ear, Nose and Throat Surgery, and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) who all excise skin lesions on a regular basis. There was significant variability in their practice with regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, with 9% always prescribing them and 19% never prescribing them. Variation exists both among and between specialities. This variation increases the risk of antimicrobial resistance and shows a paucity of good clinical evidence, indicating that a well-designed clinical trial is needed to guide future practice.