Now showing items 21-40 of 7974

    • Reducing epilepsy diagnostic and treatment gaps: Standardized paediatric epilepsy training courses for health care professionals.

      Dunkley, Colin
      Aim: To evaluate improvement in knowledge and clinical behaviour among healthcare professionals after attendance at paediatric epilepsy training (PET) courses. Method: Since 2005, 1-day PET courses have taught evidence-based paediatric epilepsy management to doctors and nurses in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. A cohort study was performed of 7528 participants attending 252 1-day PET courses between 2005 and 2020 in 17 low-, middle-, and high-income countries, and which gathered data from participants immediately after the course and then 6 months later. Training outcomes were measured prospectively in three domains (reaction, learning, and behaviour) using a mixed-methods approach involving a feedback questionnaire, a knowledge quiz before and after the course, and a 6-month survey. Results: Ninety-eight per cent (7217 of 7395) of participants rated the course as excellent or good. Participants demonstrated knowledge gain, answering a significantly higher proportion of questions correctly after the course compared to before the course (88% [47 883 of 54 196], correct answers/all quiz answers, vs 75% [40 424 of 54 196]; p < 0.001). Most survey responders reported that the course had improved their epilepsy diagnosis and management (73% [311 of 425]), clinical service (68% [290 of 427]), and local epilepsy training (68% [290 of 427]). Interpretation: This was the largest evaluation of a global epilepsy training course. Participants reported high course satisfaction, showed knowledge gain, and described improvements in clinical behaviour 6 months later. PET supports the global reduction in the epilepsy 'treatment gap' as promoted by the World Health Organization.
    • Point-of-care ultrasound is a useful adjunct tool to a clinician's assessment in the evaluation of severe hyponatraemia

      Al Alaisi, Salam; Coats, Timothy; Levy, Miles; Melson, Eka; Rahman, Faizanur; Rahman, Latif; Reddy, Narendra; Sardar, Muhammad; Shafiq, Shahriar (2024-01-16)
      Introduction: Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte disorder in inpatients resulting mainly from an imbalance in water homeostasis. Intravascular fluid status assessment is pivotal but is often challenging given multimorbidity, polypharmacy and diuretics use. We evaluated the utility of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) as an adjunct tool to standard practice for fluid assessment in severe hyponatraemia patients. Methods: Patients presenting with severe hyponatremia (Serum Sodium [Na] < 120 mmol/L; Normal range: 135-145 mol/L), managed by standard care were included. Hyponatraemia biochemistry work-up and POCUS examination were undertaken. Both clinician and POCUS independently assigned one of the three fluid status groups of hypovolaemia, hypervolaemia or euvolaemia. The final diagnosis of three fluid status groups at admission was made at the time of discharge by retrospective case review. Clinician's (standard of care) and POCUS fluid assessments were compared to that of the final diagnosis at the time of discharge. Results: n = 19 patients were included. Median Na on admission was 113 mmol/L (109-116), improved to 129 ± 3 mmol/L on discharge. POCUS showed the higher degree of agreement with the final diagnosis (84%; n = 16/19), followed by the clinician (63%; n = 12/19). A trend towards higher accuracy of POCUS compared to clinician assessment of fluid status was noted (84% vs. 63%, p = 0.1611). Biochemistry was unreliable in 58% (n = 11/19) likely due to renal failure, polypharmacy or diuretic use. Inappropriate emergency fluid management was undertaken in 37% (n = 7/19) of cases based on initial clinician assessment. Thirst symptom correlated to hypovolaemia in 80% (4/5) cases. Conclusion: As subjective clinical and biochemistry assessments of fluid status are often unreliable due to co-morbidities and concurrent use of medications, POCUS can be a rapid objective diagnostic tool to assess fluid status in patients with severe hyponatraemia, to guide accurate emergency fluid management.
    • Improving self-management behaviour through a digital lifestyle intervention: An internal pilot study

      Davies, Melanie; Graham-Brown, Matthew P M; Lightfoot, Courtney; Vadaszy, Noemi (2024-01-31)
      Background: Self-management is a key component of successful chronic kidney disease (CKD) management. Here, we present the findings from the internal pilot of a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed to test the effect of a digital self-management programme ('My Kidneys & Me' (MK&M)). Methods: Participants (aged ≥18 years and CKD stages 3-4) were recruited from hospital kidney services across England. Study processes were completed virtually. Participants were randomised 2:1 to either intervention (MK&M) or control group. The first 60 participants recruited were included in a 10-week internal pilot which assessed study feasibility and acceptability against pre-specified progression criteria: 1) eligibility and recruitment, acceptability of 2) randomisation and 3) outcomes, 4) MK&M activation, and 5) retention and attrition rates. Semi-structured interviews further explored views on trial participation. Results: Of the 60 participants recruited, 41 were randomised to MK&M and 19 to control. All participants completed baseline measures and 62% (n=37) completed post-intervention outcome measures. All progression criteria met the minimum thresholds to proceed. Nine participants were interviewed. The themes identified were satisfaction with study recruitment processes (openness to participate, reading and agreeing to "terms and conditions"), acceptability of study design (remote study participation, acceptability of randomisation, completion of online assessment(s)), and methods to improve recruitment and retention (personalised approach, follow-up communication). Conclusion: This internal pilot demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of a virtually run RCT. Progression criteria thresholds to proceed to the definitive RCT were met. Areas for improvement were identified and protocol amendments were made to improve trial delivery.
    • Patient-reported outcomes after monitoring, surgery, or radiotherapy for prostate cancer

      Kynaston, H (2016-10-13)
      Background: Robust data on patient-reported outcome measures comparing treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer are lacking. We investigated the effects of active monitoring, radical prostatectomy, and radical radiotherapy with hormones on patient-reported outcomes. Methods: We compared patient-reported outcomes among 1643 men in the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial who completed questionnaires before diagnosis, at 6 and 12 months after randomization, and annually thereafter. Patients completed validated measures that assessed urinary, bowel, and sexual function and specific effects on quality of life, anxiety and depression, and general health. Cancer-related quality of life was assessed at 5 years. Complete 6-year data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results: The rate of questionnaire completion during follow-up was higher than 85% for most measures. Of the three treatments, prostatectomy had the greatest negative effect on sexual function and urinary continence, and although there was some recovery, these outcomes remained worse in the prostatectomy group than in the other groups throughout the trial. The negative effect of radiotherapy on sexual function was greatest at 6 months, but sexual function then recovered somewhat and was stable thereafter; radiotherapy had little effect on urinary continence. Sexual and urinary function declined gradually in the active-monitoring group. Bowel function was worse in the radiotherapy group at 6 months than in the other groups but then recovered somewhat, except for the increasing frequency of bloody stools; bowel function was unchanged in the other groups. Urinary voiding and nocturia were worse in the radiotherapy group at 6 months but then mostly recovered and were similar to the other groups after 12 months. Effects on quality of life mirrored the reported changes in function. No significant differences were observed among the groups in measures of anxiety, depression, or general health-related or cancer-related quality of life. Conclusions: In this analysis of patient-reported outcomes after treatment for localized prostate cancer, patterns of severity, recovery, and decline in urinary, bowel, and sexual function and associated quality of life differed among the three groups. (Funded by the U.K. National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Program; ProtecT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN20141297 ; number, NCT02044172 .).
    • Mental Health Admissions to Paediatric Wards Study (MAPS): a protocol for the analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data

      Roland, Damian (2024-01-29)
      Introduction: Children and young people (CYP) presenting with a mental health (MH) crisis are frequently admitted to general acute paediatric wards as a place of safety. Prior to the pandemic, a survey in England showed that CYP occupied 6% of general paediatric inpatient beds due to an MH crisis, and there have been longstanding concerns about the quality of care to support these patients in this setting. Mental Health Admissions to Paediatric Wards Study aims to generate a theory of change (ToC) model to improve the quality of care for CYP admitted to acute paediatric services after presenting in a MH crisis. Methods and analysis: We will undertake a national (England), sequential, mixed methods study to inform a ToC framework alongside a stakeholder group consisting of patients, families/carers and healthcare professionals (HCPs). Our study consists of four work packages (WP) undertaken over 30 months. WP1 is limited to using national routine administrative data to identify and characterise trends in MH admissions in acute paediatric wards in England between 2015- 2022. Ethics and dissemination: WP1 received ethical approval (Ref 23/NW/0192). We will publish the overall synthesis of data and the final ToC to improve care of CYP with MH crisis admitted to general acute paediatric settings. As coproducers of the ToC, we will work with our stakeholder group to ensure wide dissemination of findings. Potential impacts will be on service development, new models of care, training and workforce planning.
    • Resveratrol for the management of human health: how far have we come? A systematic review of resveratrol clinical trials to highlight gaps and opportunities

      Brown, Karen; Pepper, Coral (2024-01-06)
      Resveratrol has long been proposed as being beneficial to human health across multiple morbidities, yet there is currently no conclusive clinical evidence to advocate its recommendation in any healthcare setting. A large cohort with high-quality clinical data and clearly defined biomarkers or endpoints are required to draw meaningful conclusions. This systematic review compiles every clinical trial conducted using a defined dose of resveratrol in a purified form across multiple morbidities to highlight the current 'state-of-play' and knowledge gaps, informing future trial designs to facilitate the realisation of resveratrol's potential benefits to human health. Over the last 20 years, there have been almost 200 studies evaluating resveratrol across at least 24 indications, including cancer, menopause symptoms, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. There are currently no consensus treatment regimens for any given condition or endpoint, beyond the fact that resveratrol is generally well-tolerated at a dose of up to 1 g/day. Additionally, resveratrol consistently reduces inflammatory markers and improves aspects of a dysregulated metabolism. In conclusion, over the last 20 years, the increasing weight of clinical evidence suggests resveratrol can benefit human health, but more large, high-quality clinical trials are required to transition this intriguing compound from health food shops to the clinic.
    • Identifying and categorizing adverse events in trials of digital mental health interventions: Narrative scoping review of trials in the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry

      Bergin, Aislinn; Valentine, Althea Z; Rennick-Egglestone, Stefan; Slade, Mike
      BACKGROUND: To contextualize the benefits of an intervention, it is important that adverse events (AEs) are reported. This is potentially difficult in trials of digital mental health interventions, where delivery may be remote and the mechanisms of actions less understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the reporting of AEs in randomized controlled trials of digital mental health interventions. METHODS: The International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number database was searched for trials registered before May 2022. Using advanced search filters, we identified 2546 trials in the category of mental and behavioral disorders. These trials were independently reviewed by 2 researchers against the eligibility criteria. Trials were included where digital mental health interventions for participants with a mental health disorder were evaluated through a completed randomized controlled trial (protocol and primary results publication published). Published protocols and primary results publications were then retrieved. Data were extracted independently by 3 researchers, with discussion to reach consensus when required. RESULTS: Twenty-three trials met the eligibility criteria, of which 16 (69%) included a statement on AEs within a publication, but only 6 (26%) reported AEs within their primary results publication. Seriousness was referred to by 6 trials, relatedness by 4, and expectedness by 2. More interventions delivered with human support (9/11, 82%) than those with only remote or no support (6/12, 50%) included a statement on AEs, but they did not report more AEs. Several reasons for participant dropout were identified by trials that did not report AEs, of which some were identifiable or related to AEs, including serious AEs. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant variation in the reporting of AEs in trials of digital mental health interventions. This variation may reflect limited reporting processes and difficulty recognizing AEs related to digital mental health interventions. There is a need to develop guidelines specifically for these trials to improve future reporting.
    • When should patients with T1N0 oral squamous cell carcinoma be considered for elective neck dissection?

      Mair, Manish (2024-01-30)
      Aims: To identify adverse pathological features (APF) predicting nodal failure in clinically node negative T1 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methodology: This study evaluated patients with T1N0 (≤5 mm depth of invasion (DOI) and ≤2 cm diameter) oral cancers from a prospectively maintained database between 1988 and 2020. All patients underwent surgical excision of the primary lesion without neck dissection. Patients underwent three monthly clinical surveillance and salvage neck dissection was performed if nodal relapse was diagnosed. Results: Overall, 141 patients were included. Nodal relapse was reported in 16/141 (11.3%) patients. Factors impacting regional recurrence-free survival were DOI ≥3 mm (HR: 2.4, P < 0.001), maximum tumour diameter ≥12 mm (HR: 1.1, P = 0.009), perineural invasion (PNI) (HR 7.5, P = 0.002) and poor differentiation (HR 5.3, P = 0.01). Rates of nodal relapse increased from 2% amongst patients with no APFs to 100% for those with four APFs. Patients with two or more APFs had significantly poorer 5-year regional recurrence-free survival (94.8% vs. 56.3%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients with T1N0 OSCC with two or more APFs (DOI ≥3 mm, diameter ≥12 mm, PNI or poor differentiations) should be considered for elective neck dissection.
    • Zebrafish optokinetic reflex: minimal reporting guidelines and recommendations

      Rodwell, Vanessa; Thomas, Mervyn (2023-12-20)
      Optokinetic reflex (OKR) assays in zebrafish models are a valuable tool for studying a diverse range of ophthalmological and neurological conditions. Despite its increasing popularity in recent years, there are no clear reporting guidelines for the assay. Following reporting guidelines in research enhances reproducibility, reduces bias, and mitigates underreporting and poor methodologies in published works. To better understand optimal reporting standards for an OKR assay in zebrafish, we performed a systematic literature review exploring the animal, environmental, and technical factors that should be considered. Using search criteria from three online databases, a total of 109 research papers were selected for review. Multiple crucial factors were identified, including larval characteristics, sample size, fixing method, OKR set-up, distance of stimulus, detailed stimulus parameters, eye recording, and eye movement analysis. The outcome of the literature analysis highlighted the insufficient information provided in past research papers and the lack of a systematic way to present the parameters related to each of the experimental factors. To circumvent any future errors and champion robust transparent research, we have created the zebrafish optokinetic (ZOK) reflex minimal reporting guideline.
    • Are displaced distal clavicle fractures associated with inferior clinical outcomes following non-operative management? A systematic review

      Haque, Aziz (2024-01-26)
      Background: Management of displaced distal clavicle fractures remains a topic of discussion due to notoriously high non-union rates, but there is little documented in the literature as to what effect this may have on patient-reported function. The aim of this systematic review was to look at non-operative management following displaced distal clavicle fractures to determine union rates, complications and patient reported outcome measures. Method: A review of the online databases MEDLINE and Embase was conducted, according to PRISMA guidelines. Clinical studies which included a cohort of non-operatively managed displaced distal clavicle fractures, and reported on union rate, complications, and patient-reported functional scores, were included. Results: 11 studies were eligible for inclusion (2 randomized controlled trials, 1 prospective non-comparative cohort study, 5 retrospective comparative cohort studies, and 3 case series) with a total of 779 patients included in this review. Average union rate was 63.2% (22.2% - 94.4%) in non-operatively managed patients, compared with 96.3% (87.9% - 100%) in operatively managed patients. The Constant-Murley Score, and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder & Hand Score were the most frequently used outcome measure tools. No study demonstrated any significant difference in any outcome measure when comparing non-operative with operative treatment. Complication rate (including non-union) in non-operatively managed patients was 45.1%, with 11.1% requiring delayed surgery. Average complication rate in the operatively managed groups was 41.2%, with 40.1% requiring a second operation. Conclusion: Non-operative management of displaced distal clavicle fractures results in higher non-union rates, but shoulder function remains excellent, and risk of complications and delayed surgery are low. Decision-making must take into account patient factors and expectations to provide high-quality, individualized care.
    • Learning curve of total ankle arthroplasty: a systematic review

      Arshad, Zaki; Haq, Ibrahim I; Bhatia, Maneesh (2024-02)
      Introduction: Together with ankle arthrodesis, total ankle arthroplasty is now accepted as a first-line intervention in the management of end-stage arthritis of the ankle. The evidence regarding how outcomes are affected by surgeon experience is inconsistent; we performed a systematic review to evaluate the effect of a learning curve in total ankle arthroplasty outcomes. Methods: An electronic database search was performed in PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane trials. Two reviewers independently conducted a two-stage title/abstract and full text screening. English-language original research studies comparing patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), complication/revision rates, operative time, length of stay or radiation exposure according to surgeon experience were included. Quality assessment was performed using the methodological index for non-randomised studies. Results: All but one included study report either improved PROMs, reduced complication/revision rate, reduced hospital stay length/operative time or reduced radiation exposure with increasing surgeon experience. However, the majority of these findings lack statistical significance. Two studies assessing the plateau of the learning curve report a wide range of plateau thresholds between 9 and 39 cases. Conclusion: This review finds a largely non-significant trend towards improvements in PROMs, complication, and revision rates with improved surgeon experience. The lack of statistical significance in a number of studies may be partially explained by methodological flaws, with more suitably designed studies reporting significant improvements. Future research into the effect of advancements in implant design and insertion guides is required to further characterise the magnitude of the learning curve and guide both mitigation and learning strategies.
    • Mental Health Admissions to Paediatric Wards Study (MAPS): protocol of a prospective study of mental health admissions to paediatric wards in England using surveillance and qualitative methods

      Roland, Damian (2024-01-25)
      Introduction: Children and young people (CYP) presenting with a mental health (MH) crisis are frequently admitted to general acute paediatric wards as a place of safety. Prior to the pandemic, a survey in England showed that CYP occupied 6% of general paediatric inpatient beds due to an MH crisis, and there have been longstanding concerns about the quality of care to support these patients in this setting. MAPS aims to generate a Theory of Change (ToC) model to improve the quality of care for CYP admitted to acute paediatric services after presenting with an MH crisis. Here, we describe work packages (WPs) 2 and 3 of the study, which have been granted ethics approval. Methods and analysis: We will undertake a national (England), sequential, mixed-methods study to inform a ToC framework alongside a stakeholder group consisting of patients, families/carers and healthcare professionals (HCPs). Our study consists of four WPs undertaken over 30 months. WP2 is limited to working with stakeholders to develop a data collection instrument and then use this in a prospective study of MH admissions over 6 months in 15 purposively recruited acute paediatric wards across England. WP3 consists of gathering the views of CYP, their families/carers and HCPs during admissions using semistructured interviews. Ethics and dissemination: WP2 and WP3 received ethical approval (ref: 23/LO/0349). We will publish the overall synthesis of data and the final ToC to improve care of CYP with MH crisis admitted to general acute paediatric settings. As co-producers of the ToC, we will work with our stakeholder group to ensure wide dissemination of findings. Potential impacts will be upon service development, new models of care, training and workforce planning. Prospero registration number: CRD42022350655.
    • The role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging and management of the osteochondral lesions of the talus

      Khan, Imran
      Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) represent an abnormality of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. The abnormality is typically associated with trauma though the exact aetiology remains unknown. Multiple staging systems have been developed to classify the abnormality and management can vary from conservative treatment to different surgical options. Early diagnosis is essential for optimal outcome and all imaging modalities have a role to play in patient management. The aim of this article is to review the pathology, classification, multimodality imaging appearances of OLT and how the imaging affects patient management.
    • Impact of weight loss and weight gain trajectories on body composition in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort analysis

      Arsenyadis, F; Biddle, G J H; Davies, M J; Henson, J; Papamargaritis, D; Webb, David R (2024-03)
      Aim: In a primary care population at high risk of type 2 diabetes, 24-month weight change trajectories were used to investigate the impact of weight cycling on fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM). Materials and methods: Cohort data from the Walking Away from Type 2 Diabetes trial was used, which recruited adults at-risk of type 2 diabetes from primary care in 2009/10. Annual weight change trajectories based on weight loss/gain of ≥5% were assessed over two 24-month periods. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Repeated measures were analysed using generalized estimating equations with participants contributing up to two 24-month observation periods. Results: In total, 622 participants were included (average age = 63.6 years, body mass index = 32.0 kg/m2 , 35.4% women), contributing 1163 observations. Most observations (69.2%) were from those that maintained their body weight, with no change to FM or FFM. A minority (4.6% of observations) lost over 5% of body weight between baseline and 12 months, which was then regained between 12 and 24 months. These individuals regained FM to baseline levels, but lost 1.50 (0.66, 2.35) kg FFM, adjusted for confounders. In contrast, those that gained weight between baseline and 12 months but lost weight between 12 and 24 months (5.5% of observations) had a net gain in FM of 1.70 (0.27, 3.12) kg with no change to FFM. Conclusion: Weight cycling may be associated with a progressive loss in FFM and/or gain in FM in those with overweight and obesity at-risk of type 2 diabetes.
    • Visual field deficits in albinism in comparison to idiopathic infantile nystagmus

      McLean, Rebecca; Sheth, Viral (2024-02-01)
      Purpose: This is the first systematic comparison of visual field (VF) deficits in people with albinism (PwA) and idiopathic infantile nystagmus (PwIIN) using static perimetry. We also compare best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography measures of the fovea, parafovea, and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer in PwA. Methods: VF testing was performed on 62 PwA and 36 PwIIN using a Humphrey Field Analyzer (SITA FAST 24-2). Mean detection thresholds for each eye were calculated, along with quadrants and central measures. Retinal layers were manually segmented in the macular region. Results: Mean detection thresholds were significantly lower than normative values for PwA (-3.10 ± 1.67 dB, P << 0.0001) and PwIIN (-1.70 ± 1.54 dB, P < 0.0001). Mean detection thresholds were significantly lower in PwA compared to PwIIN (P < 0.0001) and significantly worse for left compared to right eyes in PwA (P = 0.0002) but not in PwIIN (P = 0.37). In PwA, the superior nasal VF was significantly worse than other quadrants (P < 0.05). PwIIN appeared to show a mild relative arcuate scotoma. In PwA, central detection thresholds were correlated with foveal changes in the inner and outer retina. VF was strongly correlated to BCVA in both groups. Conclusions: Clear peripheral and central VF deficits exist in PwA and PwIIN, and static VF results need to be interpreted with caution clinically. Since PwA exhibit considerably lower detection thresholds compared to PwIIN, VF defects are unlikely to be due to nystagmus in PwA. In addition to horizontal VF asymmetry, PwA exhibit both vertical and interocular asymmetries, which needs further exploration.
    • Phenotypic features determining visual acuity in albinism and the role of amblyogenic factors

      McLean, Rebecca; Sheth, Viral (2024-02-01)
      Albinism is a spectrum disorder causing foveal hypoplasia, nystagmus, and hypopigmentation of the iris and fundus along with other visual deficits, which can all impact vision. Albinism is also associated with amblyogenic factors which could affect monocular visual acuity. The foveal appearance in albinism can range from mild foveal hypoplasia to that which is indistinguishable from the peripheral retina. The appearance can be quickly and easily graded using the Leicester Grading System in the clinic. However, interquartile ranges of 0.3 logMAR for the grades associated with albinism limit the accuracy of the grading system in predicting vision. Here, we discuss the potential role of nystagmus presenting evidence that it may not be a major source of variability in the prediction of visual acuity. We also show that interocular differences in visual acuity are low in albinism despite high levels of amblyogenic factors indicating that active suppression of vision in one eye in albinism is uncommon.
    • Proximal redundant fibula bone template for flap osteotomies in mandibular reconstruction: a novel technique

      Mair, Manish (2024-02)
      Background: Free fibula flap has been the workhouse of reconstruction for segmental mandibular defects. The use of computer aided design helps in achieving the desired aesthetic and functional outcome. It has its advantages but it comes with an extensive financial burden. Purpose: We propose the use of redundant proximal fibula bone segment as a template and a cutting guide for flap osteotomies in mandibular reconstruction. Methods: We have used this surgical technique in a case of T4 oral cancer that required segmental mandibulectomy. Result: Average ischaemia time was 1 hour and 30 minutes. Based on histopathology report, both the patients required adjuvant radiotherapy. Oral competence was maintained in both the patients. Post-operatively, the contour and the orientation of the mandibular reconstruction were comparable both clinically and radiologically to the previously planned 3D cases. Conclusion: This surgical technique provides an accurate guide for end angle osteotomy. In addition, it does not require any extra surgical step and does not increase the ischemia time of the flap with no additional extra cost. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12663-021-01567-4.
    • Accreditation of antimicrobial stewardship programmes: addressing a global need to tackle antimicrobial resistance

      Jenkins, David (2024-02-01)
      Accreditation of healthcare services provides quality assurance of hospital practice to support safe and effective care for patients. Accreditation programmes focused on antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) have been developed in high-income countries (HIC) and recently the WHO has developed a toolkit to support AMS practice in low and middle-income (LMIC) countries. BSAC has developed their Global Antimicrobial Stewardship Accreditation Scheme (GAMSAS) for hospitals based on globally applicable standards. GAMSAS aims to support healthcare organizations to build measurable AMS programmes and to support spread of best practice. GAMSAS involves a desktop assessment by BSAC experts followed by a hospital visit to gather further insight into how a hospital's AMS programme operates. A final report of compliance with the GAMSAS standards and a recommendation about accreditation at one of three levels is formally approved at a GAMSAS panel meeting involving well-established global experts in AMS. The BSAC GAMSAS team reflect on progress during the first year and ambitions for future spread.
    • What is the pipeline for future medications for obesity?

      Davies, Melanie J; Melson, Eka; Papamargaritis, Dimitris; Uzma, Ashraf (2024-02-01)
      Obesity is a chronic disease associated with increased risk of obesity-related complications and mortality. Our better understanding of the weight regulation mechanisms and the role of gut-brain axis on appetite has led to the development of safe and effective entero-pancreatic hormone-based treatments for obesity such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (RA). Semaglutide 2.4 mg once weekly, a subcutaneously administered GLP-1 RA approved for obesity treatment in 2021, results in 15-17% mean weight loss (WL) with evidence of cardioprotection. Oral GLP-1 RA are also under development and early data shows similar WL efficacy to semaglutide 2.4 mg. Looking to the next generation of obesity treatments, combinations of GLP-1 with other entero-pancreatic hormones with complementary actions and/or synergistic potential (such as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon, and amylin) are under investigation to enhance the WL and cardiometabolic benefits of GLP-1 RA. Tirzepatide, a dual GLP-1/GIP receptor agonist has been approved for glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes as well as for obesity management leading in up to 22.5% WL in phase 3 obesity trials. Other combinations of entero-pancreatic hormones including cagrisema (GLP-1/amylin RA) and the triple agonist retatrutide (GLP-1/GIP/glucagon RA) have also progressed to phase 3 trials as obesity treatments and early data suggests that may lead to even greater WL than tirzepatide. Additionally, agents with different mechanisms of action to entero-pancreatic hormones (e.g. bimagrumab) may improve the body composition during WL and are in early phase clinical trials. We are in a new era for obesity pharmacotherapy where combinations of entero-pancreatic hormones approach the WL achieved with bariatric surgery. In this review, we present the efficacy and safety data for the pipeline of obesity pharmacotherapies with a focus on entero-pancreatic hormone-based treatments and we consider the clinical implications and challenges that the new era in obesity management may bring.
    • Potentially modifiable factors associated with health-related quality of life among people with chronic kidney disease: baseline findings from the National Unified Renal Translational Research Enterprise CKD (NURTuRE-CKD) cohort.

      Lucas, Bethany; Taal, Maarten; Benavente, Melissa
      BACKGROUND: Many non-modifiable factors are associated with poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) experienced by people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesize that potentially modifiable factors for poor HRQoL can be identified among CKD patients, providing potential targets for intervention. METHOD: The National Unified Renal Translational Research Enterprise Chronic Kidney Disease (NURTuRE-CKD) cohort study recruited 2996 participants from nephrology centres with all stages of non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Baseline data collection for sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical information, including Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale renal, Hospital Anxiety and Depression score (HADS) and the 5-level EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D-5L) as HRQoL measure, took place between 2017 and 2019. EQ-5D-5L dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression) were mapped to an EQ-5D-3L value set to derive index value. Multivariable mixed effects regression models, adjusted for known factors affecting HRQoL with recruitment region as a random effect, were fit to assess potentially modifiable factors associated with index value (linear) and within each dimension (logistic). RESULTS: Among the 2958/2996 (98.7%) participants with complete EQ-5D data, 2201 (74.4%) reported problems in at least one EQ-5D-5L dimension. Multivariable linear regression identified independent associations between poorer HRQoL (EQ-5D-3L index value) and obesity (body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m2, β -0.037, 95% CI -0.058 to -0.016, P = .001), HADS depression score ≥8 (β -0.159, -0.182 to -0.137, P < .001), anxiety score ≥8 (β -0.090, -0.110 to -0.069, P < .001), taking ≥10 medications (β -0.065, -0.085 to -0.046, P < .001), sarcopenia (β -0.062, -0.080 to -0.043, P < .001) haemoglobin <100 g/L (β -0.047, -0.085 to -0.010, P = .012) and pain (β -0.134, -0.152 to -0.117, P < .001). Smoking and prescription of prednisolone independently associated with problems in self-care and usual activities respectively. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RASi) prescription associated with fewer problems with mobility and usual activities. CONCLUSION: Potentially modifiable factors including obesity, pain, depression, anxiety, anaemia, polypharmacy, smoking, steroid use and sarcopenia associated with poorer HRQoL in this cohort, whilst RASi use was associated with better HRQoL in two dimensions.